CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Avicenna J Med 2020; 10(02): 61-67
DOI: 10.4103/ajm.ajm_136_19
Original Article

Update on the etiology, classification, and management of glomerular diseases

Mohammad Tinawi
Nephrology Specialists, Munster, Indiana, USA
› Author Affiliations

Subject Editor: Financial support and sponsorship Nil.


In this brief review, the reader will find a timely update regarding some of the most commonly encountered glomerular diseases. The review will include an update on the etiology with a focus on new genetic and molecular discoveries. New classifications will be elucidated, and management will be updated in broad strokes. Illustrative pathology slides will be used as appropriate. It is critical for the reader to realize from the outset that terminology such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and crescentic glomerulonephritis represent a pattern of injury rather than a specific disease. Whenever possible, the specific etiology and pathogenesis of a given pattern should be sought. It is also important to know that the same disease or mechanism can cause multiple patterns of injury, whereas the same pattern of injury can be the result of multiple disease or mechanisms.

Publication History

Article published online:
04 August 2021

© 2020. Syrian American Medical Society. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

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