Wheat and ultra high diluted silver nitrate – further experiments and re-analysis of data
Received04 March 2015
revised18 August 2015
accepted25 September 2015
23 December 2017 (online)
Background: Since 1926, an influence of a dilution of silver nitrate (24x) on the growth of coleoptiles of wheat seedlings was described. The aim of the study discussed here is the critical proof of the reliability of a test system which has been quoted as a basic model for the research on homoeopathy for decades.
Methods: Grains of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) were observed under the influence of extremely diluted silver nitrate (10−23) prepared by stepwise dilution and agitation according to a protocol derived from homeopathy (‘24x’). Analogously prepared water and/or inert water was used for control. Thirty experiments including 5000 + 5000 grains were performed by 5 researchers.
Results: Stalk lengths clearly indicate that development is enhanced by the probe silver nitrate 24x as compared to control. When the experiments 1989–1995 were pooled, means and SD for silver nitrate 24x-groups were 42.3 ± 26.9 mm and for water control groups 34.7 ± 22.2 mm. Verum stalk length was 21.9% bigger than control (100%) (p < 0.01; d = 0.31, i.e. small). For the experiments 1998–2014, means and SD were 73.7 ± 21.7 mm and 60.5 ± 20.9 mm. Verum stalk length was 21.7% bigger than control (100%) (p < 0.01; d = 0.62, i.e. medium). From the results one may hypothesize that the result is more marked in experiments showing an average mean of stalk length between ca. 50 and 90 mm in contrast to smaller or bigger mean lengths.
Conclusion: The previous findings were confirmed by the results.
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