Endoscopy 2018; 50(09): 896-909
DOI: 10.1055/a-0637-8806
Review
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

A systematic review of advanced endoscopy-assisted lithotripsy for retained biliary tract stones: laser, electrohydraulic or extracorporeal shock wave

Joyce V. Veld*
1  Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
,
Nadine C. M. van Huijgevoort*
1  Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
,
Marja A. Boermeester
2  Department of Surgery, Amsterdam Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
,
Marc G. Besselink
2  Department of Surgery, Amsterdam Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
,
Otto M. van Delden
3  Department of Interventional Radiology, Amsterdam Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
,
Paul Fockens
1  Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
,
Jeanin E. van Hooft
1  Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

submitted 10 November 2017

accepted after revision 12 March 2018

Publication Date:
10 July 2018 (eFirst)

Abstract

Background When conventional endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones is impossible or fails, advanced endoscopy-assisted lithotripsy can be performed by electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL), laser lithotripsy, or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). No systematic review has compared efficacy and safety between these techniques.

Methods A systematic search was performed in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE for studies investigating EHL, laser lithotripsy, and ESWL in patients with retained biliary tract stones.

Results After screening 795 studies, 32 studies with 1969 patients undergoing EHL (n = 277), laser lithotripsy (n = 426) or ESWL (n = 1266) were included. No randomized studies were available. Although each advanced lithotripsy technique appeared to be highly effective, laser lithotripsy had a higher complete ductal clearance rate (95.1 %) than EHL (88.4 %) and ESWL (84.5 %; P  < 0.001). In addition, a higher stone fragmentation rate was reported for laser lithotripsy (92.5 %) than for EHL (75.5 %) and ESWL (89.3 %; P < 0.001). The post-procedural complication rate was significantly higher for patients treated with EHL (13.8 %) than for patients treated with ESWL (8.4 %) or laser lithotripsy (9.6 %; P = 0.04). Data on the recurrence rate of the biliary tract stones were lacking.

Conclusion This systematic review revealed that laser lithotripsy appeared to be the most successful advanced endoscopy-assisted lithotripsy technique for retained biliary tract stones, although randomized studies are lacking.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.


Supplemental Fig. e3, Supplemental Table e2, Supplemental Table e8 – e11