Endoscopic ultrasound-guided angiotherapy in refractory gastrointestinal bleeding from large isolated gastric varices: a same-session combined approach
03 July 2018 (eFirst)
A 36-year-old Asian man with severe portal hypertension due to hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis had been previously treated for acute gastrointestinal bleeding from a large isolated gastric varix (IGV-1) by injection of endoscopic cyanoacrylate glue at a local hospital ([Fig. 1]). Following an episode of massive recurrent hematemesis, the patient was hemodynamically stabilized and referred to our institute. Radiological evaluation revealed the presence of numerous collaterals in the gastric fundus with a large-caliber splenorenal shunt.
With the patient under general anesthesia, it was found that the portal gradient did not decrease significantly with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) positioned across the left hepatic and left intrahepatic veins , confirming that blood outflow was predominantly diverted towards the shunt ([Fig. 2 a]). We then decided to use a same-session combined technique involving balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) of the left renal vein  and selective endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided variceal embolization   by coils and n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (CYA) injection.
A B-RTO was performed to obliterate the left renal vein before EUS-guided selective treatment in order to protect the pulmonary circulation from systemic embolization ([Fig. 2 b]). Gastric varices (IGV-1) were then visualized from the stomach with a linear-array echoendoscope. Selective EUS-guided intravascular puncture was performed with a 22-gauge fine needle aspiration (FNA) needle (EZ Shot 3 Plus; Olympus Europe) and three 0.018-inch coils (MReye Embolization Coil; Cook Medical) were released through the needle under EUS and fluoroscopic control ([Video 1]), the endovascular coils being advanced into the targeted vessel using the pushing action of the stylet. Following the complete deployment of each coil, 1 mL of CYA, 3 mL of Lipiodol, and 10 mL of 5 % glucose solution were injected through the needle into the varix creating a full thrombosis. We released a total of three coils ([Fig. 2 c]) with complete variceal embolization as confirmed by a negative color Doppler scan. No adverse events or rebleeding had been reported at 12 months of follow-up.
Video 1 Refractory bleeding from isolated gastric varices is successfully treated in a same-session combined approach using transjugular intrahepatic shunt (TIPS) placement, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO), and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided variceal embolization by coils and cyanoacrylate glue injection.
EUS-guided coil placement with CYA injection is a feasible and effective additional procedure following TIPS placement in selected patients with severe portal hypertension and refractory bleeding from large IGV-1 varices.
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