Closure of residual fistula after esophageal atresia repair in a 5-year-old using endoscopic submucosal dissection of surrounding mucosa
Esotracheal fistulas after esophageal atresia repair recur in 5 to 10 % of cases   and lead to recurrent pneumonia or mediastinitis. Several surgical techniques are effective in closing an esotracheal fistula by thoracotomy or cervicotomy , but endoscopic success has never been published for this indication.
We present the case of a 5-year-old patient with a previous history of type III esophageal atresia neonatal surgery, chronic respiratory congestion, and poor weight gain. She experienced a fistula recurrence with a large tracheoesophageal defect ([Fig. 1]).
We performed an endoscopic fistula closure after prior endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of the surrounding mucosa as previously reported for a button battery-induced esotracheal fistula  or idiopathic chronic fistula . The patient underwent tracheal intubation with balloon placement just under the fistula. ESD was assisted by clip-and-line traction to dissect deeper into the fistula tract ([Video 1]). Once the mucosa was resected, we closed the area using four clips anchored in the submucosa. A radiological check objectified the tightness of the closure.
Video 1 Successful endoscopic closure of a residual fistula after esophageal atresia repair in a 5-year-old using endoscopic submucosal dissection of the surrounding mucosa.
The postoperative consequences were favorable, marked by a disappearance of the patient's respiratory symptoms during the following 3 months. A radiological check with opacification carried out 3 months before the gesture shows a tiny residual fistula and pseudo-diverticular scarring ([Fig. 2]). The patient underwent a second procedure, during which ESD of the surrounding mucosa was done with deep cutting of the diverticular wall. Then, a new closure of the resected area was done. The closure of the residual fistula was confirmed by radiological control after 1 month.
Currently, the management of recurrent esotracheal fistulas after atresia surgery is not well defined. Endoscopic closure after ESD of the surrounding mucosa could allow a definitive resolution of the esotracheal fistulas and avoid a second risky surgery.
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05 August 2020 (online)
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