Endoscopic ultrasound-guided angiotherapy in bleeding gastrointestinal stromal tumors with coil deployment and cyanoacrylate injection
Hemorrhage is the most frequent (30 – 40 %) and dangerous complication of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), with surgery being the treatment of choice and emergency surgery having a significantly higher risk than elective procedures . Conventional endoscopic treatment of tumoral lesions is challenging and efficacy limited because of the complex neoangiogenesis of these lesions, which are beyond the reach of endoscopic contact procedures . Cases of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided therapy of bleeding GISTs with injection of cyanoacrylate (CYA)   or ethanol  have been published. To the best of our knowledge, EUS-guided coil deployment has not been reported in this setting. We present two cases of bleeding GISTs successfully treated with EUS-guided combined coil deployment and further injection of CYA targeting the feeding artery ([Video 1]).
Video 1 Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided angiotherapy in two patients with bleeding GI stromal tumors with EUS-guided coil deployment and cyanoacrylate (CYA) injection targeting the feeding artery.
Case 1: a 72-year-old man was admitted for melena and hemodynamic instability. An ulcerated fundic mass with a necrotic center and a 5-mm intratumoral artery was observed ([Fig. 1]). EUS-guided injection of CYA (Histoacryl; B. Braun, Melsulgen, Germany) into the feeding artery ([Fig. 2]) with a 22-gauge needle was the initial approach. However, a spurting bleed into the tumor cavity after punction was observed ([Fig. 3]). Hemostasis was achieved by deploying a 6-mm × 20-cm coil (Nester; Cook Medical, Limerick, Ireland) and injecting 2 mL of CYA with a 19-gauge needle ([Fig. 4]).
Case 2: a 79-year-old woman was admitted for hematemesis and hypovolemic shock. An ulcerated fundic mass with a 4-mm artery was observed. EUS-guided therapy with a 19-gauge needle was performed employing a 6-mm × 14-cm coil, followed by injection of 2 mL of CYA.
The clinical outcome in both patients was uneventful, and scheduled surgery took place 4 weeks later.
EUS-guided combined angiotherapy targeting the culprit artery of bleeding GISTs maintained hemostasis until scheduled surgery. Moreover, although the follow-up in these two patients was short, EUS-guided angiotherapy may be a therapeutic option in patients with bleeding GISTs deemed unfit for surgery.
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24 July 2020 (online)
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