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Preoperative diagnosis of multiple intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas: dynamic imaging features from endoscopic ultrasound
A 60-year-old man with recurrent pancreatitis was admitted to our hospital for further examination and treatment. Abdominal computed tomography highlighted multiple cystic lesions in the pancreas ([Fig. 1 a]). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed atrophic pancreatic parenchyma and segmentally dilated pancreatic duct ([Fig. 1 b]). The diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) or intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) was proposed. Subsequent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) showed multiple cystic lesions with solid tumors inside extending along the dilated main pancreatic duct ([Fig. 1 c]). The intraductal tumor was surrounded by pancreatic fluid in the head of the pancreas, representing the “cork-of-wine-bottle sign;” however, the hypoechoic tumors connecting with anechoic fluids were displayed as two different colors in the dilated duct, indicating the “2-tone duct sign” ([Video 1]). Based on the above two typical imaging findings  , ITPN was reliably diagnosed preoperatively using EUS; thus, surgery was recommended.
Video 1 Preoperative diagnosis of multiple intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas based on the dynamic imaging features from endoscopic ultrasound, consisting of the “2-tone duct sign” and the “cork-of-wine-bottle sign.”
The resected specimen was identified with solid tumors in the dilated pancreatic duct manifesting as soft and grayish yellow. No mucin was observed. Histopathology showed the tumor consisted of tubulopapillary structures with cylindrical cells and high grade dysplasia ([Fig. 2 a]). On immunohistochemistry, the tumor was negative for MUC2, MUC6, CK-20, and CDX2 ([Fig. 2 b]), and positive for CK7, CAM5.2, and MUC-1 ([Fig. 2 c]). The Ki-67 index reached 70 % ([Fig. 2 c]). The findings were consistent with an ITPN diagnosis.
As a rare pancreatic neoplasm, ITPN is very difficult to diagnose before surgery even with a combination of imaging modes . We report the dynamic imaging features of multiple ITPNs of the pancreas on EUS, including the “2-tone duct sign” and “cork-of-wine-bottle sign.” The limitation of this study is that EUS-guided biopsy may provide more information in the differential diagnosis between IPMN and ITPN  .
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* These authors contributed equally to this work.
11 November 2020 (online)
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