Endoscopy 2021; 53(12): 1210-1218
DOI: 10.1055/a-1330-7118
Original article

The outcomes of emergency hospital admissions with non-malignant upper gastrointestinal bleeding in England between 2003 and 2015

James Rees
1  Department of Gastroenterology, Worcestershire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester, UK
,
Felicity Evison
2  Department of Health Informatics, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK
,
Jemma Mytton
2  Department of Health Informatics, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK
,
Prashant Patel
3  Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
,
Nigel Trudgill
4  Department of Gastroenterology, Sandwell & West Birmingham NHS Trust, West Bromwich, UK
› Author Affiliations
Supported by: AstraZeneca ESR-16-12227

Abstract

Background Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common medical emergency with significant mortality. Despite developments in endoscopic and clinical management, only minor improvements in outcomes have been reported.

Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with non-malignant UGIB emergency admissions in England between 2003 and 2015, using Hospital Episode Statistics. Multilevel logistic regression analysis examined the associations with mortality.

Results 242 796 patients with an UGIB admission were identified (58.8 % men; median age 70 [interquartile range (IQR) 53 – 81]). Between 2003 and 2015, falls occurred in both 30-day mortality (7.5 % to 7.0 %; P < 0.001) and age-standardized mortality (odds ratio (OR) 0.74, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.69 – 0.80; P < 0.001), including from variceal bleeding (OR 0.63, 95 %CI 0.45 – 0.87; P < 0.005). Increasing co-morbidity (Charlson score > 5, OR 2.94, 95 %CI 2.85 – 3.04; P < 0.001), older age (> 83 years, OR 6.50, 95 %CI 6.09 – 6.94; P < 0.001), variceal bleeding (OR 2.03, 95 %CI 1.89 – 2.18; P < 0.001), and a weekend admission (Sunday, OR 1.18, 95 %CI 1.12 – 1.23; P < 0.001) were associated with 30-day mortality. Of deaths at 30 days, 8.9 % were from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and the cardiovascular age-standardized mortality rate following UGIB was high (IHD deaths within 1 year, 1188.4 [95 %CI 1036.8 – 1353.8] per 100 000 men in 2003).

Conclusions Between 2003 and 2015, 30-day mortality among emergency admissions with non-malignant UGIB fell by 0.5 % to 7.0 %. Mortality was higher among UGIB admissions at the weekend, with important implications for service provision. Patients with UGIB had a much greater risk of subsequently dying from cardiovascular disease and addressing this risk is a key management step in UGIB.

Tables 1s–4s, Appendices 1s–7s



Publication History

Received: 21 April 2020

Accepted after revision: 16 November 2020

Publication Date:
18 February 2021 (online)

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