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New-generation endocytoscopy for optical characterization of elevated-type early gastric cancer
Narrow-band imaging with magnification is a tool often used to predict the histology of early depressed-type gastric cancer on the basis of the observation of the vascular and surface structure . However, it can be relatively difficult to characterize elevated-type lesions because the alert signs, such as microvascular pattern or demarcation line, are sometimes obscure . New-generation endocytoscopy (single lens, continuous zoom) enables in vivo ultrahigh magnification (× 520) for direct visualization at the cellular level and allows a precise pathological prediction of gastrointestinal neoplasia . Herein, we report two patients with gastric elevated lesions that were characterized accurately by endocytoscopy ([Video 1]).
Video 1 Endocytoscopy with CM double staining (1 % methylene blue and 0.05 % crystal violet) to characterize two elevated-type gastric lesions. The first case showed some enlarged, disarranged, hyperchromatic nuclei, with complete distortion of the glandular structure, consistent with gastric cancer. The second case revealed a regularly arranged glandular structure with sparse small round nuclei, which was recognized as being a benign lesion.
Patient 1 An 80-year-old man was referred for endoscopic examination because of intermittent epigastralgia. One 2-cm elevated lesion was found on the posterior wall of gastric antrum using conventional white-light endoscopy ([Fig. 1 a]) and narrow-band imaging ([Fig. 1 b]). Prior to endocytoscopic observation, a mixture of 1 % methylene blue and 0.05 % crystal violet (CM double staining) was sprayed over the lesion to stain the nuclei and cytoplasm. Endocytoscopy showed some enlarged, disarranged, hyperchromatic nuclei (“enlarged nuclear sign”), with complete distortion of the glandular structure, features which are consistent with gastric cancer ([Fig. 1 c]) . Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was performed, with histopathology revealing a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with invasion of the muscularis mucosa ([Fig. 1 d]).
Patient 2 A 52-year-old man underwent endoscopic examination for longstanding acid regurgitation. A 2-cm elevated lesion was found accidentally on the posterior wall of the prepyloric antrum on endoscopy ([Fig. 2 a, b]). Endocytoscopy was performed after CM double staining and showed a regularly arranged glandular structure, with sparse small round nuclei, which was recognized as being a benign lesion ([Fig. 2 c]). ESD was performed, and the histopathology revealed a hyperplastic polyp ([Fig. 2 d]).
Endocytoscopy is therefore useful for real-time optical biopsy to distinguish early gastric cancer from non-cancerous lesions.
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Article published online:
28 September 2021
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