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Gastric pyogenic granuloma: rare entity, usual therapy
Lobular capillary hemangioma, known as pyogenic granuloma, is a benign vascular tumor that generally appears on the skin or in the oral cavity but rarely occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, where it can cause bleeding . Although gastric pyogenic granuloma is rarely reported in the literature, (up to 2016, approximately 50 cases of gastrointestinal pyogenic granuloma in the English literature had been indexed on MEDLINE, including a few cases of gastric involvement), the actual incidence is probably higher  .
The endoscopic appearance of pyogenic granuloma is usually a single polypoid lesion, smooth and ulcerated; the color ranges from bluish to reddish with a superficial white or opaque film covering. Resection of pyogenic granuloma is necessary in patients with anemia, but post-resection bleeding is a potential complication. The lesions typically involve the mucosa but may extend to the deep layers; thus, preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography is recommended   .
Histopathologically, pyogenic granuloma is a hemangioma characterized by a lobule-like growth of capillaries with enlarged vascular endothelial cells and inflammatory cell infiltration in the stroma. Granulation tissue may also be present; the main pathological differential diagnosis of pyogenic granuloma includes bacillary angiomatosis, Kaposi’s sarcoma, or inflammatory and/or hyperplastic polyps  .
We report a case of a 78 year-old Caucasian woman with a medical history significant for ibuprofen use admitted to our department for anemia and melena requiring transfusion. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a nearly 20-mm pedunculated polyp, strongly hyperemic with a superficial white film, in the gastric body ([Fig. 1]). Endoscopic ultrasonography showed mucosal involvement without deep infiltration ([Fig. 2]).
We removed the polyp using endoscopic mucosal resection, lifting the lesion with a solution of indigo carmine and epinephrine; in addition, multiple clips were used to close the defect to prevent bleeding ([Video 1]). Histology demonstrated foveolar hyperplasia and lobulated capillary hemangioma, characteristic of pyogenic granuloma ([Fig. 3], [Fig. 4]). Her refractory anemia improved after the procedure.
Video 1 Gastric pyogenic granuloma effectively removed by endoscopic snare resection.
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Article published online:
04 February 2022
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