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Artificial intelligence-assisted optical diagnosis for the resect-and-discard strategy in clinical practice: the Artificial intelligence BLI Characterization (ABC) studyTrial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Registration number (trial ID): NCT04607083 Type of study: Prospective, Multicenter study
Background Optical diagnosis of colonic polyps is poorly reproducible outside of high volume referral centers. The present study aimed to assess whether real-time artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted optical diagnosis is accurate enough to implement the leave-in-situ strategy for diminutive (≤ 5 mm) rectosigmoid polyps (DRSPs).
Methods Consecutive colonoscopy outpatients with ≥ 1 DRSP were included. DRSPs were categorized as adenomas or nonadenomas by the endoscopists, who had differing expertise in optical diagnosis, with the assistance of a real-time AI system (CAD-EYE). The primary end point was ≥ 90 % negative predictive value (NPV) for adenomatous histology in high confidence AI-assisted optical diagnosis of DRSPs (Preservation and Incorporation of Valuable endoscopic Innovations [PIVI-1] threshold), with histopathology as the reference standard. The agreement between optical- and histology-based post-polypectomy surveillance intervals (≥ 90 %; PIVI-2 threshold) was also calculated according to European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and United States Multi-Society Task Force (USMSTF) guidelines.
Results Overall 596 DRSPs were retrieved for histology in 389 patients; an AI-assisted high confidence optical diagnosis was made in 92.3 %. The NPV of AI-assisted optical diagnosis for DRSPs (PIVI-1) was 91.0 % (95 %CI 87.1 %–93.9 %). The PIVI-2 threshold was met with 97.4 % (95 %CI 95.7 %–98.9 %) and 92.6 % (95 %CI 90.0 %–95.2 %) of patients according to ESGE and USMSTF, respectively. AI-assisted optical diagnosis accuracy was significantly lower for nonexperts (82.3 %, 95 %CI 76.4 %–87.3 %) than for experts (91.9 %, 95 %CI 88.5 %–94.5 %); however, nonexperts quickly approached the performance levels of experts over time.
Conclusion AI-assisted optical diagnosis matches the required PIVI thresholds. This does not however offset the need for endoscopistsʼ high level confidence and expertise. The AI system seems to be useful, especially for nonexperts.
* Joint first authors
Received: 15 October 2021
Accepted after revision: 13 May 2022
Accepted Manuscript online:
13 May 2022
Article published online:
12 July 2022
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