J Am Acad Audiol
DOI: 10.1055/a-1889-6534
Research Article

Examination of Language, Behavioral, Academic, and Social Skills of Cochlear Implant Users in Early Primary Education

1   Department of Audiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
Esra Yücel
1   Department of Audiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
› Author Affiliations


Background Cochlear implants (CIs) improve spoken language skills as well as social and academic performance in children with severe and profound sensorineural hearing loss.

Purpose We compare the social skills, academic competence, and problem behaviors in children with CIs and their typical-hearing peers and investigate the relationship between language skills and social skills, academic competence, and problem behaviors in children with CIs.

Research Design Thirty-two children with CIs were divided into two groups according to implantation age: early (n = 17) and late-implanted group (n = 15). The control group was formed by the inclusion of five same-sex classmates of each implanted child selected by the teachers of the children with CIs. Thus, 160 typical-hearing children were included in the control group.

Study Sample Thirty-two children with CIs and 160 typical-hearing children participated in this study.

Data collection and analysis Primary school teachers rated the children's social skills, academic competence, and problem behaviors using the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). The language skills of the children with CIs were assessed with the Turkish Expressive and Receptive Language Test (TIFALDI).

Results A statistically significant difference was found between the SSRS scores of the study and control groups, which was mostly due to lower social skills, and academic competence, and higher problem behavior ratings in the late-implanted group. In the study group, there was a statistically significant correlation between TIFALDI and SSRS scores.

Conclusion Early cochlear implantation provides advantages in social skills and vocabulary for children with profound congenital hearing loss. Late-implanted children need special support in different developmental areas despite attending mainstream education.


Any mention of a product, service, or procedure in the Journal of the American Academy of Audiology does not constitute an endorsement of the product, service, or procedure by the American Academy of Audiology.

* This study was presented as an oral presentation at the 15th International Conference on Cochlear Implants and Other Implantable Auditory Technology Congress held between 27 and 30 June 2018. It has not been published or submitted simultaneously for publication elsewhere

Publication History

Received: 02 December 2021

Accepted: 24 June 2022

Accepted Manuscript online:
01 July 2022

Article published online:
29 November 2022

© 2022. American Academy of Audiology. This article is published by Thieme.

Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.
333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USA

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