Drug Res (Stuttg) 2023; 73(08): 448-458
DOI: 10.1055/a-2132-6475
Original Article

Lupeol: A Triterpenoid Isolated from the Stem Bark of Hymenocardia Acida (tul.) Exhibits a van der Waal Antagonism on the Alpha Subunit of Gastric H+K+Atpase – A Promising Antiulcer Principle

1   Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products, Afe Babalola University, Nigeria.
2   Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Igbinedion University, Nigeria
Ojukwu Ugochukwu
2   Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Igbinedion University, Nigeria
Ismail Mussaddiq
3   Department of Pharmacognosy, Igbinedion University, Nigeria
4   Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Benin, Nigeria
› Author Affiliations


Background Hymenocardia acida (HA) is one of the numerous medicinal plants in Nigeria with ethnomedicinal history of usage in the treatment of ulcer. The study aimed at isolating antiulcer principle(s) from the stem bark of HA as well as the mechanism of action determination.

Methods Antiulcer screenings of the crude extract, aqueous fraction, and bulked VLC fractions were performed using in vivo and in vitro models. Docking was carried out by using PyRx.

Results Crude extract (HA; 1 mg/mL) and the aqueous fraction of H. acida (HAA; 1 mg/mL) showed an acid neutralizing capacity (MEq) of 0.3948 and 0.4035, respectively which is significantly different from 0.431 MEq showed by negative control (distilled water) at p<0.05. BVLC 3 (1 mg/mL) showed a significant value of 0.4049 MEq. However, HA showed a dose-dependent decrease in activity across doses examined, with 100 mg/kg showing an ulcer index of 10.00±2.89 (61.50%) and cimetidine (positive control; 100 mg/kg), also showed the highest ulcer index of 3.67±0.88 (85.9%), which is significantly different from ulcer index of 26.00±6.35 (0.00%) p<0.05 observed in the negative control (5% dimethylsulphoxide). The highest ulcer index of 8.00±1.32 (65.10%) was noted in BVLC 3. Bioactive BVLC 3, resulted in an isolated compound (BF3B2A). The compound was suggested to be lupeol, with a docking score of −7.7. It showed a van der Waal interaction with some key amino acid residues in the vonoprazan binding site.

Conclusion The experimental studies justify the ethnomedicinal claim of usage among locals.

Supplementary Material

Publication History

Received: 01 March 2023

Accepted: 06 June 2023

Article published online:
25 August 2023

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