Forehead Lifting: State of the Art
18 January 2011 (online)
Forehead lifting serves to restore a more youthful appearance as well as a more functional and aesthetically pleasing brow position. The purpose of this review is to describe the pertinent anatomy and forehead aesthetics, then to discuss the patient evaluation, surgical approaches, complications, and nonsurgical adjuncts. Anatomic features reviewed include the layers of the forehead and scalp, blood supply, innervation, musculature, and the temporal branch of the facial nerve anatomy. Forehead aesthetics described include the aging process, with its contributing factors and consequences, and the ideal brow position in women and men. Key aspects of the patient evaluation include assessment of skin type; ptosis; hairline, brow, and lid position; symmetry; and bony contours. Pertinent past medical/surgical history as well as family history are reviewed, and the need for ophthalmology evaluation is discussed. Surgical indications and approaches, including direct, coronal, mid-forehead, endoscopic, and trans-blepharoplasty, are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed and techniques briefly described. Complications are mentioned, and the article concludes with a review of nonsurgical adjuncts.
Forehead - brow - lift - endoscopic