Facial plast Surg 2011; 27(2): 135-145
DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1271294
© Thieme Medical Publishers

Functional Anatomy of the Nose

Thomas Koppe1 , Evangelos I. Giotakis2 , Werner Heppt2
  • 1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
  • 2Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Facial Plastic Surgery, Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
14 March 2011 (online)


The human nose is a very complex entity with a great amount of variation among and within different human populations. Even though the morphology of the nasal pyramid and its soft tissue coverage is principally known, a standardized nomenclature does not yet exist. The past two decades have witnessed a considerable increase of new studies on the functional morphology of the external nasal anatomy. Detailed anatomic and clinical knowledge about the external nose is a prerequisite for successful rhinosurgery, thus this report deals with the basic structures necessary for functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty.