Int J Sports Med 2013; 34(05): 385-390
DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1312604
Physiology & Biochemistry
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Low-Intensity Resistance Training after High-Intensity Resistance Training can Prevent the Increase of Central Arterial Stiffness

T. Okamoto
1   Institute of Exercise and Sport Physiology, Nippon Sport Science University, Tokyo, Japan
M. Masuhara
2   Institute of Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry, Osaka University of Health and Sport Sciences, Osaka, Japan
K. Ikuta
3   Institute of Health and Child Sciences, Osaka Aoyama University, Osaka, Japan
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision 09 April 2012

Publication Date:
05 October 2012 (online)


Although high-intensity resistance training increases arterial stiffness, low-intensity resistance training reduces arterial stiffness. The present study investigates the effect of low-intensity resistance training before and after high-intensity resistance training on arterial stiffness. 30 young healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a group that performed low-intensity resistance training before high-intensity resistance training (BLRT, n=10), a group that performed low-intensity resistance training after high-intensity resistance training (ALRT, n=10) and a sedentary control group (n=10). The BLRT and ALRT groups performed resistance training at 80% and 50% of one repetition maximum twice each week for 10 wk. Arterial stiffness was measured using carotid-femoral and femoral-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV). One-repetition maximum strength in the both ALRT and BLRT significantly increased after the intervention (P<0.05 to P<0.01). Both carotid-femoral PWV and femoral-ankle PWV after combined training in the ALRT group did not change from before training. In contrast, carotid-femoral PWV after combined training in the BLRT group increased from before training (P <0.05). Femoral-ankle PWV after combined training in the both BLRT and ALRT groups did not change from before training. These results suggest that although arterial stiffness is increased by low-intensity resistance training before high-intensity resistance training, performing low-intensity resistance training thereafter can prevent the increase of arterial stiffness.

  • References

  • 1 Asmar R. Factor influencing pulse wave velocity. In: Asmar R. ed. Arterial Stiffness and Pulse Wave Velocity. Elsevier; Amsterdam: 1999: 57-88
  • 2 Beniamini Y, Rubenstein JJ, Faigenbaum AD, Lichtenstein AH, Crim MC. High-intensity strength training of patients enrolled in an outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 1999; 19: 8-17
  • 3 Bonde-Petersen F, Mork AL, Nielsen E. Local muscle blood flow and sustained contractions of human arm and back muscles. Eur J Appl Physiol 1975; 34: 43-50
  • 4 Burnstock G. Release of vasoactive substances from endothelial cells by shear stress and purinergic mechanosensory transduction. J Anat 1999; 194: 335-342
  • 5 Casey DP, Beck DT, Braith RW. Progressive resistance training without volume increases does not alter arterial stiffness and aortic wave reflection. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2007; 232: 1228-1235
  • 6 Cortez-Cooper MY, DeVan AE, Anton MM, Farrar RP, Beckwith KA, Todd JS, Tanaka H. Effects of high intensity resistance training on arterial stiffness and wave reflection in women. Am J Hypertens 2005; 18: 930-934
  • 7 Harriss DJ, Atkinson G. Update – ethical standards in sport and exercise science research. Int J Sports Med 2011; 32: 819-821
  • 8 Heffernan KS, Rossow L, Jae SY, Shokunbi HG, Gibson EM, Fernhall B. Effect of single-leg resistance exercise on regional arterial stiffness. Eur J Appl Physiol 2006; 98: 185-190
  • 9 Heistad DD, Abboud FM, Dickinson W. Circulatory adjustments to hypoxia. Circulation 1980; 61: 463-470
  • 10 Kawano H, Tanaka H, Miyachi M. Resistance training and arterial compliance: keeping the benefits while minimizing the stiffening. J Hypertens 2006; 24: 1753-1759
  • 11 Kinlay S, Creager MA, Fukumoto M, Hikita H, Fang JC, Selwyn AP, Ganz P. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide regulates arterial elasticity in human arteries in vivo. Hypertension 2001; 38: 1049-1053
  • 12 Laurent S, Cockcroft J, Van Bortel L, Boutouyrie P, Giannattasio C, Hayoz D, Pannier B, Vlachopoulos C, Wilkinson I, Struijker-Boudier H. European Network for Non-invasive Investigation of Large Arteries. Expert consensus document on arterial stiffness: methodological issues and clinical applications. Eur Heart J 2006; 27: 2588-2605
  • 13 London GM, Guerin AP. Influence of arterial pulse and reflected waves on blood pressure and cardiac function. Am Heart J 1999; 138: 220-224
  • 14 McDonagh MJN, Davies CTM. Adaptive response of mammalian skeletal muscle to exercise with high loads. Eur J Appl Physiol 1984; 52: 139-155
  • 15 Mitchell JH, Payne FC, Saltin B, Schibye B. The role of muscle mass in the cardiovascular response to static contractions. J Physiol 1980; 309: 45-54
  • 16 Miyachi M, Kawano H, Sugawara J, Takahashi K, Hayashi K, Yamazaki K, Tabata I, Tanaka H. Unfavorable effects of resistance training on central arterial compliance: a randomized intervention study. Circulation 2004; 110: 2858-2863
  • 17 Miyachi M, Tanaka H, Kawano H, Okajima M, Tabata I. Lack of age-related decreases in basal whole leg blood flow in resistance-trained men. J Appl Physiol 2005; 99: 1384-1390
  • 18 Nelson ME, Fiatarone M, Morganti C, Trice I, Greenberg RA, Evans WJ. Effects of high-intensity strength training on multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1994; 272: 1909-1914
  • 19 Okamoto T, Masuhara M, Ikuta K. Effects of eccentric and concentric resistance training on arterial stiffness. J Hum Hypertens 2006; 20: 348-354
  • 20 Okamoto T, Masuhara M, Ikuta K. Combined aerobic and resistance training and vascular function: effect of aerobic exercise before and after resistance training. J Appl Physiol 2007; 103: 1655-1661
  • 21 Okamoto T, Masuhara M, Ikuta K. Low-intensity resistance exercise with slow lifting and lowering does not increase noradrenalin and cardiovascular responses. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2009; 29: 32-37
  • 22 Okamoto T, Masuhara M, Ikuta K. Effect of low-intensity resistance training on arterial function. Eur J Appl Physiol 2011; 111: 743-748
  • 23 Pescatello LS, Franklin BA, Fagard R, Farquhar WB, Kelley GA, Ray CA. American College of Sports Medicine. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and hypertension. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36: 533-553
  • 24 Polito MD, da Nóbrega AC, Farinatti P. Blood pressure and forearm blood flow after multiple sets of a resistive exercise for the lower limbs. Blood Press Monit 2011; 16: 180-185
  • 25 Pollock ML, Franklin BA, Balady GJ, Chaitman BL, Fleg JL, Fletcher B, Limacher M, Piña IL, Stein RA, Williams M, Bazzarre T. AHA Science Advisory. Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease: benefits, rationale, safety, and prescription: An advisory from the Committee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention, Council on Clinical Cardiology, American Heart Association; Position paper endorsed by the American College of Sports Medicine. Circulation. 2000. 101. 828-833
  • 26 Pratley R, Nicklas B, Rubin M, Miller J, Smith A, Smith M, Hurley B, Goldberg A. Strength training increases resting metabolic rate and norepinephrine levels in healthy 50- to 65-yr-old men. J Appl Physiol 1994; 76: 133-137
  • 27 Rakobowchuk M, McGowan CL, de Groot PC, Bruinsma D, Hartman JW, Phillips SM, MacDonald MJ. Effect of whole body resistance training on arterial compliance in young men. Exp Physiol 2005; 90: 645-651
  • 28 Sugawara J, Maeda S, Otsuki T, Tanabe T, Ajisaka R, Matsuda M. Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on decrease in peripheral arterial stiffness with acute low-intensity aerobic exercise. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2004; 287: H2666-H2669
  • 29 Tanaka H, Dinenno FA, Monahan KD, Clevenger CM, DeSouza CA, Seals DR. Aging, habitual exercise, and dynamic arterial compliance. Circulation 2000; 102: 1270-1275
  • 30 Takarada Y, Ishii N. Effects of low-intensity resistance exercise with short interset rest period on muscular function in middle-aged women. J Strength Cond Res 2002; 16: 123-128
  • 31 Tanimoto M, Ishii N. Effects of low-intensity resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular function in young men. J Appl Physiol 2006; 100: 1150-1157
  • 32 Tesfamariam B, Weisbrod RM, Cohen RA. Endothelium inhibits responses of rabbit carotid artery to adrenergic nerve stimulation. Am J Physiol 1987; 253: H792-H798
  • 33 Wilkinson IB, Qasem A, McEniery CM, Webb DJ, Avolio AP, Cockcroft JR. Nitric oxide regulates local arterial distensibility in vivo. Circulation 2002; 105: 213-217
  • 34 Williams MA, Haskell WL, Ades PA, Amsterdam EA, Bittner V, Franklin BA, Gulanick M, Laing ST, Stewart KJ. American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology; American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease: 2007 update. Circulation. 2007. 116. 572-584
  • 35 Williams MR, Westerman RA, Kingwell BA, Paige J, Blombery PA, Sudhir K, Komesaroff PA. Variations in endothelial function and arterial compliance during the menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 5389-5395
  • 36 Yoshizawa M, Maeda S, Miyaki A, Misono M, Saito Y, Tanabe K, Kuno S, Ajisaka R. Effect of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity resistance training on arterial stiffness: a randomised controlled trial in women aged 32-59 years. Br J Sports Med 2009; 43: 615-618