Ultraschall in Med 2013; 34(1): 11-29
DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1325499
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Guidelines and Good Clinical Practice Recommendations for Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) in the Liver – Update 2012

A WFUMB-EFSUMB Initiative in Cooperation With Representatives of AFSUMB, AIUM, ASUM, FLAUS and ICUS
M. Claudon
Department of Pediatric Radiology, INSERM U947, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nancy and Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre, France
C. F. Dietrich
Medizinische Klinik 2, Caritas-Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim, Germany
B. I. Choi
Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
D. O. Cosgrove
Imaging Sciences Department, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom
M. Kudo
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
C. P. Nolsøe
Ultrasound Section, Division of Surgery, Department of Gastroenterology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
F. Piscaglia
Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
S. R. Wilson
Division of Gastroenterology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
R. G. Barr
Northeastern Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, Ohio, United States of America
M. C. Chammas
Institute of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
N. G. Chaubal
Thane Ultrasound Centre, Jaslok Hospital, Mumbai, India
M.-H. Chen
Peking University Cancer Hospital, Peking, China
D. A. Clevert
Interdisciplinary Ultrasound Center, Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich-Grosshadern Campus, Munich, Germany
J. M. Correas
Service de Radiologie Adultes, Hôpital Necker, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France
H. Ding
Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
F. Forsberg
Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Philadelphia, United States of America
J. B. Fowlkes
Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
R. N. Gibson
Department of Radiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
B. B. Goldberg
Division of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
N. Lassau
Integrated Research Cancer Institute in Villejuif, Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif, France
E. L. S. Leen
Imaging Department, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
R. F. Mattrey
MRI Institute, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America
F. Moriyasu
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
L. Solbiati
Department of Interventional Oncologic Radiology, General Hospital of Busto Arsizio, Busto Arsizio, Italy
H.-P. Weskott
Central Ultrasound Department, Klinikum Siloah, Klinikum Region Hannover, Hannover, Germany
H.-X. Xu
Department of Medical Ultrasound, Tenth People’s Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai, China
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
05 November 2012 (eFirst)


Initially, a set of guidelines for the use of ultrasound contrast agents was published in 2004 dealing only with liver applications. A second edition of the guidelines in 2008 reflected changes in the available contrast agents and updated the guidelines for the liver, as well as implementing some non-liver applications. Time has moved on, and the need for international guidelines on the use of CEUS in the liver has become apparent. The present document describes the third iteration of recommendations for the hepatic use of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using contrast specific imaging techniques. This joint WFUMB-EFSUMB initiative has implicated experts from major leading ultrasound societies worldwide. These liver CEUS guidelines are simultaneously published in the official journals of both organizing federations (i.e., Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology for WFUMB and Ultraschall in der Medizin/European Journal of Ultrasound for EFSUMB). These guidelines and recommendations provide general advice on the use of all currently clinically available ultrasound contrast agents (UCA). They are intended to create standard protocols for the use and administration of UCA in liver applications on an international basis and improve the management of patients worldwide.