Ultraschall in Med 2013; 34(1): 11-29
DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1325499
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Guidelines and Good Clinical Practice Recommendations for Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) in the Liver – Update 2012

A WFUMB-EFSUMB Initiative in Cooperation With Representatives of AFSUMB, AIUM, ASUM, FLAUS and ICUSM. Claudon1, C. F. Dietrich2, B. I. Choi3, D. O. Cosgrove4, M. Kudo5, C. P. Nolsøe6, F. Piscaglia7, S. R. Wilson8, R. G. Barr9, M. C. Chammas10, N. G. Chaubal11, M.-H. Chen12, D. A. Clevert13, J. M. Correas14, H. Ding15, F. Forsberg16, J. B. Fowlkes17, R. N. Gibson18, B. B. Goldberg19, N. Lassau20, E. L. S. Leen21, R. F. Mattrey22, F. Moriyasu23, L. Solbiati24, H.-P. Weskott25, H.-X. Xu26
  • 1Department of Pediatric Radiology, INSERM U947, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nancy and Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre, France
  • 2Medizinische Klinik 2, Caritas-Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim, Germany
  • 3Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Imaging Sciences Department, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom
  • 5Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
  • 6Ultrasound Section, Division of Surgery, Department of Gastroenterology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 7Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
  • 8Division of Gastroenterology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 9Northeastern Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, Ohio, United States of America
  • 10Institute of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 11Thane Ultrasound Centre, Jaslok Hospital, Mumbai, India
  • 12Peking University Cancer Hospital, Peking, China
  • 13Interdisciplinary Ultrasound Center, Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich-Grosshadern Campus, Munich, Germany
  • 14Service de Radiologie Adultes, Hôpital Necker, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France
  • 15Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
  • 16Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Philadelphia, United States of America
  • 17Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
  • 18Department of Radiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
  • 19Division of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
  • 20Integrated Research Cancer Institute in Villejuif, Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif, France
  • 21Imaging Department, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
  • 22MRI Institute, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America
  • 23Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
  • 24Department of Interventional Oncologic Radiology, General Hospital of Busto Arsizio, Busto Arsizio, Italy
  • 25Central Ultrasound Department, Klinikum Siloah, Klinikum Region Hannover, Hannover, Germany
  • 26Department of Medical Ultrasound, Tenth People’s Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
05 November 2012 (eFirst)


Initially, a set of guidelines for the use of ultrasound contrast agents was published in 2004 dealing only with liver applications. A second edition of the guidelines in 2008 reflected changes in the available contrast agents and updated the guidelines for the liver, as well as implementing some non-liver applications. Time has moved on, and the need for international guidelines on the use of CEUS in the liver has become apparent. The present document describes the third iteration of recommendations for the hepatic use of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using contrast specific imaging techniques. This joint WFUMB-EFSUMB initiative has implicated experts from major leading ultrasound societies worldwide. These liver CEUS guidelines are simultaneously published in the official journals of both organizing federations (i.e., Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology for WFUMB and Ultraschall in der Medizin/European Journal of Ultrasound for EFSUMB). These guidelines and recommendations provide general advice on the use of all currently clinically available ultrasound contrast agents (UCA). They are intended to create standard protocols for the use and administration of UCA in liver applications on an international basis and improve the management of patients worldwide.