Endoscopy 2013; 45(12): 1006-1013
DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1344714
Original article
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance

Vani J. A. Konda1, Alexander Meining2, Laith H. Jamil3, Marc Giovannini4, Joo Ha Hwang5, Michael B. Wallace6, Kenneth J. Chang7, Uzma D. Siddiqui8, John Hart9, Simon K. Lo3, Michael D. Saunders5, Harry R. Aslanian8, Kirsten Wroblewski10, Irving Waxman1
  • 1Center for Endoscopic Research and Therapeutics, Section of Gastroenterology, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • 2Department of Medicine II Klinikum rects der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
  • 3Section of Gastroenterology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA
  • 4Endoscopy Unit, Paoli-Calmettes Institute, Marseille, France
  • 5Department of Gastroenterology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, Florida, USA
  • 6Division of Gastroenterology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 7Division of Gastroenterology, University of California, Irvine, Los Angeles, California, USA
  • 8Section of Gastroenterology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
  • 9Department of Pathology, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • 10Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Further Information

Publication History

submitted 09 December 2012

accepted after revision 15 July 2013

Publication Date:
25 October 2013 (eFirst)

Background and study aims: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCL) is flawed by inadequate diagnostic yield. Needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE) utilizes a sub-millimeter probe that is compatible with an EUS needle and enables real-time imaging with microscopic detail of PCL. The aims of the In vivo nCLE Study in the Pancreas with Endosonography of Cystic Tumors (INSPECT) pilot study were to assess both the diagnostic potential of nCLE in differentiating cyst types and the safety of the technique.

Patients and methods: Eight referral centers performed nCLE in patients with PCL. Stage 1 defined descriptive terms for structures visualized by an off-line, unblinded consensus review. Cases were reviewed with a gastrointestinal pathologist to identify correlations between histology and nCLE. Stage 2 assessed whether the specific criteria defined in Stage 1 could identify pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCN) including intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic adenoma, or adenocarcinoma in an off-line blinded consensus review.

Results: A total of 66 patients underwent nCLE imaging and images were available for 65, 8 of which were subsequently excluded due to insufficient information for consensus reference diagnosis. The presence of epithelial villous structures based on nCLE was associated with PCN (P = 0.004) and provided a sensitivity of 59 %, specificity of 100 %, positive predictive value of 100 %, and negative predictive value of 50 %. The overall complication rate was 9 % and included pancreatitis (1 mild case, 1 moderate case), transient abdominal pain (n = 1), and intracystic bleeding not requiring any further measures (n = 3).

Conclusions: These preliminary data suggested that nCLE has a high specificity in the detection of PCN, but may be limited by a low sensitivity. The safety of nCLE requires further evaluation.