Int J Sports Med 2014; 35(02): 139-146
DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1349077
Training & Testing
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Nonfunctional Overreaching Leads to Inflammation and Myostatin Upregulation in Swiss Mice

B. C. Pereira
1  School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
,
J. R. Pauli
2  Sport Sciences Course, Faculty of Applied Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil
,
C. T. de Souza
3  Exercise Biochemistry and Physiology Laboratory Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Criciúma, Brazil
,
E. R. Ropelle
2  Sport Sciences Course, Faculty of Applied Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil
,
D. E. Cintra
2  Sport Sciences Course, Faculty of Applied Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil
,
E. M. Rocha
4  Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, ­University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
,
E. C. Freitas
1  School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
,
M. Papoti
1  School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
,
L. da Silva
4  Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, ­University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
,
F. S. Lira
3  Exercise Biochemistry and Physiology Laboratory Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Criciúma, Brazil
,
A.S. R. da Silva
1  School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History



accepted after revision 04 May 2013

Publication Date:
18 July 2013 (online)

Abstract

The aims of the this study were a) to verify whether the performance decrease induced by nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) is linked to high concentrations of cytokines in serum, skeletal muscles and liver; b) to verify muscle myostatin adaptation to NFOR; c) to verify the effects of chronic glucose supplementation on the parameters mentioned above. Mice were divided into control (C), trained (TR), overtrained (OTR) and supplemented overtrained (OTR+S). The incremental load test (ILT) and exhaustive test (ET) were used to measure performances before and after exercise protocols. 24 h after ET, muscles and liver were removed and stored at −80°C for subsequent measurements. Total blood was collected from decapitation for subsequent determination of cytokine concentrations. Generally, OTR and OTR+S presented higher contents of IL-6, TNF-alpha, GLUT-4 and myostatin in muscle samples compared to C and TR. Glucose supplementation attenuated the high contents of IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-15 in liver, and of IL-6 in serum. In summary, NFOR led to low-grade chronic inflammation and myostatin upregulation.