Int J Sports Med 2014; 35(02): 159-163
DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1349136
Clinical Sciences
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Intra-Abdominal Pressure during Swimming

S. Moriyama
1  Department of Sports Wellness Sciences, Japan ­Women’s College of ­Physical Education, Setagaya-ku, Japan
2  Graduate School of Physical Education, National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya, Japan
,
F. Ogita
3  Department of Sports and Life Science, National ­Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya, Japan
,
Z. Huang
4  Department of Sports Science, Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Kita-ku, Japan
,
K. Kurobe
5  Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, ­Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Japan
,
A. Nagira
2  Graduate School of Physical Education, National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya, Japan
,
T. Tanaka
6  Department of Coaching of Sports and Budo, National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya, Japan
,
H. Takahashi
4  Department of Sports Science, Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Kita-ku, Japan
,
Y. Hirano
4  Department of Sports Science, Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Kita-ku, Japan
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History



accepted after revision 30 May 2013

Publication Date:
18 July 2013 (eFirst)

Abstract

The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s−1 and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P<0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure.