Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage after failed ERCP: cumulative experience of 101 procedures at a single center
submitted 06 August 2014
accepted after revision 11 February 2015
11 May 2015 (online)
Background and study aim: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary access is an alternative to percutaneous access after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This report presents 7 years’ cumulative experience of EUS-guided biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice in patients with failed ERCP.
Patients and methods: Between February 2006 and February 2013, 101 patients (malignant = 98, benign = 3) with previous failed ERCP underwent an EUS intra- or extrahepatic approach with transluminal stenting or an EUS-guided rendezvous procedure with transpapillary stent placement. A single endoscopist performed all procedures.
Results: A total of 71 patients underwent the intrahepatic approach (66 hepatogastrostomies and 5 EUS-guided rendezvous), and 30 underwent the extrahepatic approach (26 choledochoduodenostomies, 1 choledochojejunostomy, 1 choledochoantrostomy, and 2 EUS-guided cholangiographies). Technical and clinical success rates were 98.0 % and 92.1 %, respectively. There was no difference in efficacy between hepatogastrostomies and choledochoduodenostomies (94 % vs. 90 %; P = 0.69) or in major complications (10.6 % vs. 6.7 %; P = 1). Adverse events occurred in 12 patients (11.9 %): 10 in the hepatogastrostomy group (2 limited pneumoperitoneum, 1 hepatic hematoma, 5 bile leakage, 2 sepsis), and 2 in the choledochoduodenostomy group (1 arteriobiliary fistula and 1 sepsis). There were six procedure-related deaths, five among the first 50 patients and one among the last 51 patients. Hepatogastrostomy vs. choledochoduodenostomy, plastic vs. metal stenting, stent-in-stent vs. 1 stent, nasobiliary drain, or postoperative octreotide infusion were not prognostic of bile leakage.
Conclusion: EUS-guided biliary drainage is an efficient technique, but is associated with significant morbidity that seems to decrease with the learning curve. It should be performed in tertiary care centers in selected patients. Prospective randomized studies are needed to compare EUS-guided biliary drainage with percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography drainage.
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