Ultraschall Med 2016; 37(05): 473-476
DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1553450
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part VI – Ultrasound-Guided Vascular Interventions

EFSUMB Leitlinien Interventioneller Ultraschall (INVUS), Teil VI – Ultraschall-geführte Gefäßinterventionen
C. Jenssen
1   Department of Internal Medicine, Krankenhaus Märkisch Oderland, Strausberg/ Wriezen, Germany
B. Brkljacic
2   University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital „Dubrava“, Zagreb, Croatia
M. Hocke
3   Department of Internal Medicine 2, Helios Hospital Meiningen GmbH, Meiningen, Germany
A. Ignee
4   Department of Internal Medicine 2, Caritas Krankenhaus, Bad Mergentheim, Germany
F. Piscaglia
5   Unit of Internal Medicine, Dept of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
M. Radzina
6   Diagnostic Radiology Institute, Paula Stradins Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia
P. S. Sidhu
7   Department of Radiology, King’s College Hospital, London, UK
C. F. Dietrich
4   Department of Internal Medicine 2, Caritas Krankenhaus, Bad Mergentheim, Germany
8   Sino-German Research Center of Ultrasound in Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
29 October 2015 (online)


The sixth part of the Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound produced under the auspices of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) assesses the evidence for ultrasound guidance and assistance in vascular interventions. Based on convincing data, real-time sonographic guidance for central venous access is strongly recommended as a key safety measure. Systematic analysis of scientific literature shows that in difficult situations and special circumstances US guidance may also improve the efficacy and safety of peripheral venous and arterial access and endovascular interventions. Moreover, the recommendations of this guideline endorse the use of ultrasound to detect complications of vascular access and US-guided interventional treatment of arterial pseudoaneurysms.


Der sechste Teil der unter Federführung der European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) entstandenen Leitlinien zur interventionellen Sonografie bewertet die Evidenz für sonografisch gestützte und assistierte vaskuläre Interventionen. Auf der Grundlage überzeugender Daten wird die sonografisch gestützte Anlage zentralvenöser Zugänge als wesentlicher Sicherheitsstandard empfohlen. Die systematische Literaturanalyse zeigt, dass in schwierigen Situationen auch die Effizienz und Sicherheit sowohl peripher-venöser und peripher-arterieller Gefäßzugänge als auch endovaskulärer Interventionen durch sonografische Führung verbessert werden können. Darüber hinaus befürworten die Empfehlungen dieser Leitlinie die Nutzung der Sonografie für die Detektion von Komplikationen vaskulärer Zugänge und die ultraschallgestützte interventionelle Therapie arterieller Pseudoaneurysmen.


  • References

  • 1 Dietrich CF, Lorentzen T, Sidhu PS et al. An introduction into the EFSUMB guidelines on interventional ultrasound (INVUS). Ultraschall Med 2015; 36: 460-463
  • 2 Alderson PJ, Burrows FA, Stemp LI et al. Use of ultrasound to evaluate internal jugular vein anatomy and to facilitate central venous cannulation in paediatric patients. Br J Anaesth 1993; 70: 145-148
  • 3 Denys BG, Uretsky BF. Anatomical variations of internal jugular vein location: impact on central venous access. Crit Care Med 1991; 19: 1516-1519
  • 4 Maecken T, Marcon C, Bomas S et al. Relationship of the internal jugular vein to the common carotid artery: implications for ultrasound-guided vascular access. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2011; 28: 351-355
  • 5 Turba UC, Uflacker R, Hannegan C et al. Anatomic relationship of the internal jugular vein and the common carotid artery applied to percutaneous transjugular procedures. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2005; 28: 303-306
  • 6 Troianos CA, Kuwik RJ, Pasqual JR et al. Internal jugular vein and carotid artery anatomic relation as determined by ultrasonography. Anesthesiology 1996; 85: 43-48
  • 7 Benter T, Teichgraber UK, Kluhs L et al. Anatomical variations in the internal jugular veins of cancer patients affecting central venous access. Anatomical variation of the internal jugular vein. Ultraschall in Med 2001; 22: 23-26
  • 8 Beaudoin FL, Merchant RC, Lincoln J et al. Bedside ultrasonography detects significant femoral vessel overlap: implications for central venous cannulation. CJEM 2011; 13: 245-250
  • 9 Randall C, Schmeiser E, Fiers E et al. Ultrasound investigation of leg position to enhance femoral vein exposure for cannulation. J Emerg Med 2014; 47: 176-181
  • 10 Lamperti M, Bodenham AR, Pittiruti M et al. International evidence-based recommendations on ultrasound-guided vascular access. Intensive Care Med 2012; 38: 1105-1117
  • 11 Milling Jr TJ, Rose J, Briggs WM et al. Randomized, controlled clinical trial of point-of-care limited ultrasonography assistance of central venous cannulation: the Third Sonography Outcomes Assessment Program (SOAP-3) Trial. Crit Care Med 2005; 33: 1764-1769
  • 12 Ray BR, Mohan VK, Kashyap L et al. Internal jugular vein cannulation: A comparison of three techniques. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2013; 29: 367-371
  • 13 Hayashi H, Amano M. Does ultrasound imaging before puncture facilitate internal jugular vein cannulation? Prospective randomized comparison with landmark-guided puncture in ventilated patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2002; 16: 572-575
  • 14 Mansfield PF, Hohn DC, Fornage BD et al. Complications and failures of subclavian-vein catheterization. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 1735-1738
  • 15 Brass P, Hellmich M, Kolodziej L et al. Ultrasound guidance versus anatomical landmarks for subclavian or femoral vein catheterization. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; 1 CD011447
  • 16 Brass P, Hellmich M, Kolodziej L et al. Ultrasound guidance versus anatomical landmarks for internal jugular vein catheterization. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; 1 CD006962
  • 17 Hosokawa K, Shime N, Kato Y et al. A randomized trial of ultrasound image-based skin surface marking versus real-time ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization in infants. Anesthesiology 2007; 107: 720-724
  • 18 Randolph AG, Cook DJ, Gonzales CA et al. Ultrasound guidance for placement of central venous catheters: a meta-analysis of the literature. Crit Care Med 1996; 24: 2053-2058
  • 19 Hind D, Calvert N, McWilliams R et al. Ultrasonic locating devices for central venous cannulation: meta-analysis. BMJ 2003; 327: 361
  • 20 Rabindranath KS, Kumar E, Shail R et al. Use of real-time ultrasound guidance for the placement of hemodialysis catheters: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Kidney Dis 2011; 58: 964-970
  • 21 Rabindranath KS, Kumar E, Shail R et al. Ultrasound use for the placement of haemodialysis catheters. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; CD005279
  • 22 Wu SY, Ling Q, Cao LH et al. Real-time two-dimensional ultrasound guidance for central venous cannulation: a meta-analysis. Anesthesiology 2013; 118: 361-375
  • 23 Mehta N, Valesky WW, Guy A et al. Systematic review: is real-time ultrasonic-guided central line placement by ED physicians more successful than the traditional landmark approach?. Emerg Med J 2013; 30: 355-359
  • 24 Leung J, Duffy M, Finckh A. Real-time ultrasonographically-guided internal jugular vein catheterization in the emergency department increases success rates and reduces complications: a randomized, prospective study. Ann Emerg Med 2006; 48: 540-547
  • 25 Karakitsos D, Labropoulos N, De Groot E et al. Real-time ultrasound-guided catheterisation of the internal jugular vein: a prospective comparison with the landmark technique in critical care patients. Crit Care 2006; 10: R162
  • 26 Fragou M, Gravvanis A, Dimitriou V et al. Real-time ultrasound-guided subclavian vein cannulation versus the landmark method in critical care patients: a prospective randomized study. Crit Care Med 2011; 39: 1607-1612
  • 27 Serafimidis K, Sakorafas GH, Konstantoudakis G et al. Ultrasound-guided catheterization of the internal jugular vein in oncologic patients; comparison with the classical anatomic landmark technique: a prospective study. Int J Surg 2009; 7: 526-528
  • 28 Napolitano M, Malato A, Raffaele F et al. Ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterisation in haematological patients with severe thrombocytopenia. Blood Transfus 2013; 11: 506-509
  • 29 Cavanna L, Civardi G, Vallisa D et al. Ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization in cancer patients improves the success rate of cannulation and reduces mechanical complications: a prospective observational study of 1978 consecutive catheterizations. World J Surg Oncol 2010; 8: 91
  • 30 Turker G, Kaya FN, Gurbet A et al. Internal jugular vein cannulation: an ultrasound-guided technique versus a landmark-guided technique. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2009; 64: 989-992
  • 31 Rando K, Castelli J, Pratt JP et al. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization: a randomized controlled trial. Heart Lung Vessel 2014; 6: 13-23
  • 32 Calvert N, Hind D, McWilliams R et al. Ultrasound for central venous cannulation: economic evaluation of cost-effectiveness. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 1116-1120
  • 33 Sigaut S, Skhiri A, Stany I et al. Ultrasound guided internal jugular vein access in children and infant: a meta-analysis of published studies. Paediatr Anaesth 2009; 19: 1199-1206
  • 34 Aouad MT, Kanazi GE, Abdallah FW et al. Femoral vein cannulation performed by residents: a comparison between ultrasound-guided and landmark technique in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2010; 111: 724-728
  • 35 Shojania KG, Duncan BW, McDonald KM et al. Making health care safer: a critical analysis of patient safety practices. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ) 2001; i-x 1-668
  • 36 Shekelle PG, Wachter RM, Pronovost PJ et al. Making health care safer II: an updated critical analysis of the evidence for patient safety practices. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) 2013; 1-945
  • 37 National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). Guidance on the Use of Ultrasound Locating Devices for Placing Central Venous Catheters. London UK: NICE; 2002. Technology appraisal guidance no. 49.
  • 38 Troianos CA, Hartman GS, Glas KE et al. Guidelines for performing ultrasound guided vascular cannulation: recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2011; 24: 1291-1318
  • 39 Jauch KW, Schregel W, Stanga Z et al. Access technique and its problems in parenteral nutrition – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 9. Ger Med Sci 2009; 7 Doc19
  • 40 Pittiruti M, Hamilton H, Biffi R et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: central venous catheters (access, care, diagnosis and therapy of complications). Clin Nutr 2009; 28: 365-377
  • 41 Bishop L, Dougherty L, Bodenham A et al. Guidelines on the insertion and management of central venous access devices in adults. Int J Lab Hematol 2007; 29: 261-278
  • 42 AIUM practice guideline for the use of ultrasound to guide vascular access procedures. J Ultrasound Med 2013; 32: 191-215
  • 43 Soyer P, Fargeaudou Y, Boudiaf M et al. Transjugular liver biopsy using ultrasonographic guidance for jugular vein puncture and an automated device for hepatic tissue sampling: a retrospective analysis of 200 consecutive cases. Abdom Imaging 2008; 33: 627-632
  • 44 Habdank K, Restrepo R, Ng V et al. Combined sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance during transjugular hepatic biopsies performed in children: a retrospective study of 74 biopsies. Am J Roentgenol Am J Roentgenol 2003; 180: 1393-1398
  • 45 Keshava SN, Moses V, Surendrababu NR. Cannula-assisted and transabdominal ultrasound-guided hepatic venous recanalization in Budd Chiari syndrome: a novel technique to avoid percutaneous transabdominal access. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2009; 32: 1257-1259
  • 46 Chunqing Z, Lina F, Guoquan Z et al. Ultrasonically guided percutaneous transhepatic hepatic vein stent placement for Budd-Chiari syndrome. J Vasc Interv Radiol 1999; 10: 933-940
  • 47 Maleux G, Gillard P, Keymeulen B et al. Feasibility, safety, and efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic injection of beta-cell grafts. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2005; 16: 1693-1697
  • 48 Gao F, Ai SD, Liu S et al. Percutaneous transhepatic portal catheterization guided by ultrasound technology for islet transplantation in rhesus monkey. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2012; 11: 154-159
  • 49 Lai L, Poneros J, Santilli J et al. EUS-guided portal vein catheterization and pressure measurement in an animal model: a pilot study of feasibility. Gastrointest Endosc 2004; 59: 280-283
  • 50 Giday SA, Ko CW, Clarke JO et al. EUS-guided portal vein carbon dioxide angiography: a pilot study in a porcine model. Gastrointest Endosc 2007; 66: 814-819
  • 51 Giday SA, Clarke JO, Buscaglia JM et al. EUS-guided portal vein catheterization: a promising novel approach for portal angiography and portal vein pressure measurements. Gastrointest Endosc 2008; 67: 338-342
  • 52 Matthes K, Sahani D, Holalkere NS et al. Feasibility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided portal vein embolization with Enteryx. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 2005; 68: 412-415
  • 53 Egan G, Healy D, O'Neill H et al. Ultrasound guidance for difficult peripheral venous access: systematic review and meta-analysis. Emerg Med J 2013; 30: 521-526
  • 54 Liu YT, Alsaawi A, Bjornsson HM. Ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access: a systematic review of randomized-controlled trials. Eur J Emerg Med 2014; 21: 18-23
  • 55 Shokoohi H, Boniface K, McCarthy M et al. Ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous access program is associated with a marked reduction in central venous catheter use in noncritically ill emergency department patients. Ann Emerg Med 2013; 61: 198-203
  • 56 Shiloh AL, Savel RH, Paulin LM et al. Ultrasound-guided catheterization of the radial artery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Chest 2011; 139: 524-529
  • 57 Tang L, Wang F, Li Y et al. Ultrasound guidance for radial artery catheterization: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One 2014; 9: e111527
  • 58 Gu WJ, Tie HT, Liu JC et al. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided radial artery catheterization: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Care 2014; 18: R93
  • 59 Gao YB, Yan JH, Gao FQ et al. Effects of ultrasound-guided radial artery catheterization: an updated meta-analysis. Am J Emerg Med 2015; 33: 50-55
  • 60 Dudeck O, Teichgraeber U, Podrabsky P et al. A randomized trial assessing the value of ultrasound-guided puncture of the femoral artery for interventional investigations. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2004; 20: 363-368
  • 61 Seto AH, Abu-Fadel MS, Sparling JM et al. Real-time ultrasound guidance facilitates femoral arterial access and reduces vascular complications: FAUST (Femoral Arterial Access With Ultrasound Trial). JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2010; 3: 751-758
  • 62 Arthurs ZM, Starnes BW, Sohn VY et al. Ultrasound-guided access improves rate of access-related complications for totally percutaneous aortic aneurysm repair. Ann Vasc Surg 2008; 22: 736-741
  • 63 Marcus AJ, Lotzof K, Howard A. Access to the superficial femoral artery in the presence of a “hostile groin”: a prospective study. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2007; 30: 351-354
  • 64 Katzenschlager R, Ahmadi A, Minar E et al. Femoropopliteal artery: initial and 6-month results of color duplex US-guided percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Radiology 1996; 199: 331-334
  • 65 Ahmadi R, Ugurluoglu A, Schillinger M et al. Duplex ultrasound-guided femoropopliteal angioplasty: initial and 12-month results from a case controlled study. J Endovasc Ther 2002; 9: 873-881
  • 66 Ascher E, Marks NA, Hingorani AP et al. Duplex-guided endovascular treatment for occlusive and stenotic lesions of the femoral-popliteal arterial segment: a comparative study in the first 253 cases. J Vasc Surg 2006; 44: 1230-1237 discussion 1237–1238
  • 67 Ascher E, Hingorani AP, Marks N. Duplex-guided balloon angioplasty of lower extremity arteries. Perspect Vasc Surg Endovasc Ther 2007; 19: 23-31
  • 68 Bacchini G, La Milia V, Andrulli S et al. Color Doppler ultrasonography percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of vascular access grafts. J Vasc Access 2007; 8: 81-85
  • 69 Cianci R, Lavini R, Letizia C et al. Low-contrast medium doses for ultrasound imaging during renal revascularization by PTA-stenting. J Nephrol 2004; 17: 520-524
  • 70 Ascher E, Hingorani A, Marks N. Duplex-guided balloon angioplasty of failing or nonmaturing arterio-venous fistulae for hemodialysis: a new office-based procedure. J Vasc Surg 2009; 50: 594-599
  • 71 Gallagher JJ, Boniscavage P, Ascher E et al. Clinical experience with office-based duplex-guided balloon-assisted maturation of arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis. Ann Vasc Surg 2012; 26: 982-984
  • 72 Ascher E, Gopal K, Marks N et al. Duplex-guided endovascular repair of popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs): a new approach to avert the use of contrast material and radiation exposure. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2010; 39: 769-773
  • 73 Ascher E, Marks NA, Schutzer RW et al. Duplex-assisted internal carotid artery balloon angioplasty and stent placement: a novel approach to minimize or eliminate the use of contrast material. J Vasc Surg 2005; 41: 409-415
  • 74 Blaivas M, Adhikari S. An unseen danger: frequency of posterior vessel wall penetration by needles during attempts to place internal jugular vein central catheters using ultrasound guidance. Crit Care Med 2009; 37: 2345-2349 quiz 2359
  • 75 Moon CH, Blehar D, Shear MA et al. Incidence of posterior vessel wall puncture during ultrasound-guided vessel cannulation in a simulated model. Acad Emerg Med 2010; 17: 1138-1141
  • 76 Erickson CS, Liao MM, Haukoos JS et al. Ultrasound-guided small vessel cannulation: long-axis approach is equivalent to short-axis in novice sonographers experienced with landmark-based cannulation. West J Emerg Med 2014; 15: 824-830
  • 77 Vogel JA, Haukoos JS, Erickson CL et al. Is long-axis view superior to short-axis view in ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization?. Crit Care Med 2015; 43: 832-839
  • 78 Stone MB, Moon C, Sutijono D et al. Needle tip visualization during ultrasound-guided vascular access: short-axis vs long-axis approach. Am J Emerg Med 2010; 28: 343-347
  • 79 Clemmesen L, Knudsen L, Sloth E et al. Dynamic needle tip positioning – ultrasound guidance for peripheral vascular access. A randomized, controlled and blinded study in phantoms performed by ultrasound novices. Ultraschall in Med 2012; 33: E321-E325
  • 80 Mahler SA, Wang H, Lester C et al. Short- vs long-axis approach to ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous access: a prospective randomized study. Am J Emerg Med 2011; 29: 1194-1197
  • 81 Sommerkamp SK, Romaniuk VM, Witting MD et al. A comparison of longitudinal and transverse approaches to ultrasound-guided axillary vein cannulation. Am J Emerg Med 2013; 31: 478-481
  • 82 Tammam TF, El-Shafey EM, Tammam HF. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein access: comparison between short axis and long axis techniques. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2013; 24: 707-713
  • 83 Theodoro D, Krauss M, Kollef M et al. Risk factors for acute adverse events during ultrasound-guided central venous cannulation in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 2010; 17: 1055-1061
  • 84 Vezzani A, Manca T, Vercelli A et al. Ultrasonography as a guide during vascular access procedures and in the diagnosis of complications. J Ultrasound 2013; 16: 161-170
  • 85 Maury E, Guglielminotti J, Alzieu M et al. Ultrasonic examination: an alternative to chest radiography after central venous catheter insertion?. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 164: 403-405
  • 86 Vezzani A, Brusasco C, Palermo S et al. Ultrasound localization of central vein catheter and detection of postprocedural pneumothorax: an alternative to chest radiography. Crit Care Med 2010; 38: 533-538
  • 87 Lanza C, Russo M, Fabrizzi G. Central venous cannulation: are routine chest radiographs necessary after B-mode and colour Doppler sonography check?. Pediatr Radiol 2006; 36: 1252-1256
  • 88 Matsushima K, Frankel HL. Bedside ultrasound can safely eliminate the need for chest radiographs after central venous catheter placement: CVC sono in the surgical ICU (SICU). J Surg Res 2010; 163: 155-161
  • 89 Weekes AJ, Johnson DA, Keller SM et al. Central vascular catheter placement evaluation using saline flush and bedside echocardiography. Acad Emerg Med 2014; 21: 65-72
  • 90 Bedel J, Vallee F, Mari A et al. Guidewire localization by transthoracic echocardiography during central venous catheter insertion: a periprocedural method to evaluate catheter placement. Intensive Care Med 2013; 39: 1932-1937
  • 91 Park YH, Lee JH, Byon HJ et al. Transthoracic echocardiographic guidance for obtaining an optimal insertion length of internal jugular venous catheters in infants. Paediatr Anaesth 2014; 24: 927-932
  • 92 Lichtenstein DA, Menu Y. A bedside ultrasound sign ruling out pneumothorax in the critically ill. Lung sliding. Chest 1995; 108: 1345-1348
  • 93 Lichtenstein DA, Meziere G, Lascols N et al. Ultrasound diagnosis of occult pneumothorax. Crit Care Med 2005; 33: 1231-1238
  • 94 Lordick F, Hentrich M, Decker T et al. Ultrasound screening for internal jugular vein thrombosis aids the detection of central venous catheter-related infections in patients with haemato-oncological diseases: a prospective observational study. Br J Haematol 2003; 120: 1073-1078
  • 95 Yilmaz KB, Akinci M, Dogan L et al. Central venous catheter-associated thrombosis in the perioperative period: a frequent complication in cancer patients that can be detected early with doppler examination. Tumori 2010; 96: 690-694
  • 96 Ahmad F, Turner SA, Torrie P et al. Iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms--a review of current methods of diagnosis and treatment. Clin Radiol 2008; 63: 1310-1316
  • 97 Hanson JM, Atri M, Power N. Ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of iatrogenic groin pseudoaneurysm: Doppler features and technical tips. Br J Radiol 2008; 81: 154-163
  • 98 Webber GW, Jang J, Gustavson S et al. Contemporary management of postcatheterization pseudoaneurysms. Circulation 2007; 115: 2666-2674
  • 99 Paulson EK, Kliewer MA, Hertzberg BS et al. Color Doppler sonography of groin complications following femoral artery catheterization. Am J Roentgenol Am J Roentgenol 1995; 165: 439-444
  • 100 Coughlin BF, Paushter DM. Peripheral pseudoaneurysms: evaluation with duplex US. Radiology 1988; 168: 339-342
  • 101 Ates M, Sahin S, Konuralp C et al. Evaluation of risk factors associated with femoral pseudoaneurysms after cardiac catheterization. J Vasc Surg 2006; 43: 520-524
  • 102 Ortiz D, Jahangir A, Singh M et al. Access site complications after peripheral vascular interventions: incidence, predictors, and outcomes. Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2014; 7: 821-828
  • 103 Kent KC, McArdle CR, Kennedy B et al. A prospective study of the outcome of femoral pseudoaneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas induced by arterial puncture. J Vasc Surg 1993; 17: 125-131
  • 104 Toursarkissian B, Allen BT, Petrinec D et al. Spontaneous closure of selected iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms and arteriovenous fistulae. J Vasc Surg 1997; 25: 803-808
  • 105 Stone PA, Campbell JE, AbuRahma AF. Femoral pseudoaneurysms after percutaneous access. J Vasc Surg 2014; 60: 1359-1366
  • 106 Tisi PV, Callam MJ. Treatment for femoral pseudoaneurysms. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 11 CD004981
  • 107 Cox GS, Young JR, Gray BR et al. Ultrasound-guided compression repair of postcatheterization pseudoaneurysms: results of treatment in one hundred cases. J Vasc Surg 1994; 19: 683-686
  • 108 Paulson EK, Sheafor DH, Kliewer MA et al. Treatment of iatrogenic femoral arterial pseudoaneurysms: comparison of US-guided thrombin injection with compression repair. Radiology 2000; 215: 403-408
  • 109 Eisenberg L, Paulson EK, Kliewer MA et al. Sonographically guided compression repair of pseudoaneurysms: further experience from a single institution. Am J Roentgenol Am J Roentgenol 1999; 173: 1567-1573
  • 110 Finkelstein A, Bazan S, Halkin A et al. Treatment of post-catheterization femoral artery pseudo-aneurysm with para-aneurysmal saline injection. Am J Cardiol 2008; 101: 1418-1422
  • 111 Periard D, Rey Meyer MA, Hayoz D et al. Sealing pseudo-aneurysms of the femoral artery with saline injection: a new technique. EuroIntervention 2012; 7: 1206-1209
  • 112 Gehling G, Ludwig J, Schmidt A et al. Percutaneous occlusion of femoral artery pseudoaneurysm by para-aneurysmal saline injection. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2003; 58: 500-504
  • 113 ElMahdy MF, Kassem HH, Ewis EB et al. Comparison between ultrasound-guided compression and para-aneurysmal saline injection in the treatment of postcatheterization femoral artery pseudoaneurysms. Am J Cardiol 2014; 113: 871-876
  • 114 Dzijan-Horn M, Langwieser N, Groha P et al. Safety and efficacy of a potential treatment algorithm by using manual compression repair and ultrasound-guided thrombin injection for the management of iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysm in a large patient cohort. Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2014; 7: 207-215
  • 115 Luedde M, Krumsdorf U, Zehelein J et al. Treatment of iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysm by ultrasound-guided compression therapy and thrombin injection. Angiology 2007; 58: 435-439
  • 116 Schneider C, Malisius R, Kuchler R et al. A prospective study on ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection for treatment of iatrogenic post-catheterisation femoral pseudoaneurysms. Int J Cardiol 2009; 131: 356-361
  • 117 Chen DH, Sammel AM, Jain P et al. Cardiologist Operated Ultrasound Guided Thrombin Injection as a Safe and Efficacious First Line Treatment for Iatrogenic Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysms. Heart Lung Circ 2015; 24: 165-172