Preterm Preeclampsia and Timing of Delivery: A Systematic Literature Review[*]Pré-eclâmpsia pré-termo e o melhor momento para a resolução da gestação: revisão sistemática da literatura*
08 December 2016
18 May 2017
12 July 2017 (eFirst)
Introduction Preeclampsia, a multifactorial disease with pathophysiology not yet fully understood, is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, especially when preterm. The diagnosis is performed when there is an association between arterial hypertension and proteinuria or evidence of severity. There are unanswered questions in the literature considering the timing of delivery once preterm preeclampsia has been diagnosed, given the risk of developing maternal complications versus the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes associated with prematurity. The objective of this systematic review is to determine the best timing of delivery for women diagnosed with preeclampsia before 37 weeks of gestation.
Methods Systematic literature review, performed in the PubMed database, using the terms preeclampsia, parturition and timing of delivery to look for studies conducted between 2014 and 2017. Studies that compared the maternal and perinatal outcomes of women who underwent immediate delivery or delayed delivery, in the absence of evidence of severe preeclampsia, were selected.
Results A total of 629 studies were initially retrieved. After reading the titles, 78 were selected, and their abstracts, evaluated; 16 were then evaluated in full and, in the end, 6 studies (2 randomized clinical trials and 4 observational studies) met the inclusion criteria. The results were presented according to gestational age range (< 34 weeks and between 34 and 37 weeks) and by maternal and perinatal outcomes, according to the timing of delivery, considering immediate delivery or expectant management. Before 34 weeks, the maternal outcomes were similar, but the perinatal outcomes were significantly worse when immediate delivery occurred. Between 34 and 37 weeks, the progression to severe maternal disease was slightly higher among women undergoing expectant management, however, with better perinatal outcomes.
Conclusions When there is no evidence of severe preeclampsia or impaired fetal well-being, especially before 34 weeks, the pregnancy should be carefully surveilled, and the delivery, postponed, aiming at improving the perinatal outcomes. Between 34 and 37 weeks, the decision on the timing of delivery should be shared with the pregnant woman and her family, after providing information regarding the risks of adverse outcomes associated with preeclampsia and prematurity.
Introdução A pré-eclâmpsia, doença multifatorial e com fisiopatologia ainda não totalmente estabelecida, é importante causa de morbimortalidade materna e perinatal, especialmente quando pré-termo. O diagnóstico é realizado quando há associação entre hipertensão arterial e proteinúria ou evidência de gravidade. Existem questionamentos na literatura se, frente ao diagnóstico de pré-eclâmpsia, a resolução da gravidez deve ser imediata ou postergada, considerando o risco de desenvolvimento de complicações maternas versus os resultados perinatais associados à prematuridade. O objetivo desta revisão sistemática é estabelecer o melhor momento de resolução da gestação em mulheres com pré-eclâmpsia antes das 37 semanas.
Metodologia Revisão sistemática da literatura, realizada na base de dados PubMed, usando os termos preeclampsia parturition e timing of delivery, para encontrar estudos feitos entre 2014 a 2017. Foram selecionados estudos que comparassem os desfechos maternos e perinatais de mulheres submetidas a resolução imediata ou a postergação do parto, na ausência de evidência de pré-eclâmpsia grave.
Resultados Foram localizados 629 artigos; após leitura dos títulos, 78 foram selecionados. Realizada avaliação dos seus resumos, 16 foram avaliados na integralmente e, finalmente, 6 estudos preencheram os requisitos de inclusão (2 ensaios clínicos randomizados e 4 estudos observacionais). Os resultados foram apresentados conforme a faixa de idade gestacional (≤ 34 semanas, e entre 34 e 37 semanas) e a avaliação dos desfechos maternos e perinatais. Antes das 34 semanas, os resultados maternos foram semelhantes; entretanto, os desfechos perinatais foram significativamente piores quando houve resolução imediata. Entre 34 e 37 semanas, a progressão para doença materna grave foi discretamente maior entre as mulheres submetidas a conduta expectante; entretanto, os desfechos perinatais foram melhores quando o parto foi postergado.
Conclusões Na ausência de evidências de pré-eclâmpsia grave ou de prejuízo da vitalidade fetal, o parto deve ser postergado, principalmente antes das 34 semanas, com vigilância materna e fetal rigorosas. Entre 34 e 37 semanas, a decisão deve ser compartilhada com a gestante e sua família, após esclarecimento sobre os desfechos adversos associados à pré-eclâmpsia e prematuridade.
The theme of this systematic review was defined by the Specialized Preeclampsia Committee. JPG and MLC performed the systematic literature review (independent assessment), and extracted data from each article included. FGS acted as a third reviewer, when there were any issues concerning the selection of the studies. JPG wrote the first version of the manuscript. MLC, MAP and FGS reviewed the first version, and then incorporated the suggestions from the other co-authors and members of the Specialized Preeclampsia Committee. All authors read and agreed with the final version of the article.
* This revision is part of the Project Series, Guidelines and Recommendations of the Federação Brasileira das Associações de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia – FEBRASGO, elaborated by the Specialized National Committees in Hypertension in Pregnancy.
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