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Stem cells contribute to the pathogenesis of middle ear cholesteatoma
18 April 2018 (online)
Cholesteatoma is a potentially life-threatening middle ear lesion due to the formation of an inflamed ectopic mass of keratinizing squamous epithelium. Surgical removal remains the only treatment option, emphasizing the need to gain a better understanding of this severe middle ear disease.
Life sciences techniques, Gene expression Analysis.
We identified for the first time that stem cells residing in cholesteatoma tissue contribute to the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. Cells expressing the “stemness” markers Nestin and S100B were detected in middle ear cholesteatoma and auditory canal skin. Isolated Nestin+/S100B+-cells showed the capability of self-renewal neurosphere formation and differentiation into mesodermal and ectodermal cell types including kerationcytes. Middle ear cholesteatoma-derived stem cells displayed an enhanced susceptibility to inflammatory stimulus compared to auditory canal skin stem cells, and this suggested a possible direct role in pathogenesis of cholesteatoma progression.
Cholesteatoma-derived stem cells were able to differentiate into keratinocyte-like cells using factors mimicking the microenvironment of cholesteatoma. Our findings show a completely new perspective in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma and may lead to new treatment strategies for this severe middle ear lesion.