The Neuroanatomy of Reproduction: Seeing Is Believing
03 January 2019 (online)
The brain is the central controller of reproduction and the menstrual cycle. Reproductive endocrinologists spend their days treating patients with perturbations in reproduction as a result of pituitary diseases and manipulate pituitary hormones to enhance fertility and quality of life. Microscopic neuroanatomical images will allow a better understanding of how a tumor in the pituitary might affect vision, or a mass in the brain might cause amenorrhea. Clinical correlations that are taught every day become much clearer once the anatomical relationships are explored. The objective of this pictorial tour is to elucidate anatomical and clinical relationships while showcasing the neuroanatomy of reproduction.
- 1 Lunenfeld B. Historical perspectives in gonadotrophin therapy. Hum Reprod Update 2004; 10 (06) 453-467
- 2 Sellar Region | Neurosurgery | Oxford Academic. Available at: https://academic.oup.com/neurosurgery/article/51/suppl_4/S1-335/2728103 . Accessed August 30, 2018
- 3 Larkin S, Ansorge O. Development and microscopic anatomy of the pituitary gland. Endotext; 2000. Available at: MDText.com, Inc.
- 4 Asa SL, Ezzat S. The pathogenesis of pituitary tumors. Annu Rev Pathol 2009; 4: 97-126
- 5 Ostrom QT, Gittleman H, Farah P. , et al. CBTRUS statistical report: primary brain and central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2006-2010. Neuro-oncol 2013; 15 (Suppl. 02) ii1-ii56
- 6 Ostrom QT, Gittleman H, Liao P. , et al. CBTRUS Statistical Report: primary brain and other central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2010-2014. Neuro-oncol 2017; 19 (Suppl. 05) v1-v88
- 7 Nammour GM, Ybarra J, Naheedy MH, Romeo JH, Aron DC. Incidental pituitary macroadenoma: a population-based study. Am J Med Sci 1997; 314 (05) 287-291
- 8 Chambers EF, Turski PA, LaMasters D, Newton TH. Regions of low density in the contrast-enhanced pituitary gland: normal and pathologic processes. Radiology 1982; 144 (01) 109-113
- 9 Ezzat S, Asa SL, Couldwell WT. , et al. The prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a systematic review. Cancer 2004; 101 (03) 613-619
- 10 Hall WA, Luciano MG, Doppman JL, Patronas NJ, Oldfield EH. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in normal human volunteers: occult adenomas in the general population. Ann Intern Med 1994; 120 (10) 817-820
- 11 Molitch ME. Diagnosis and treatment of pituitary adenomas: a review. JAMA 2017; 317 (05) 516-524
- 12 Primeau V, Raftopoulos C, Maiter D. Outcomes of transsphenoidal surgery in prolactinomas: improvement of hormonal control in dopamine agonist-resistant patients. Eur J Endocrinol 2012; 166 (05) 779-786
- 13 Inoshita N, Nishioka H. The 2017 WHO classification of pituitary adenoma: overview and comments. Brain Tumor Pathol 2018; 35 (02) 51-56
- 14 Skugor M, Hamrahian AH. Pituitary disorders. In: Carey WD, ed. Current Clinical Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier; 2010;408-415.
- 15 Ben-Shlomo A, Melmed S. Acromegaly. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2008; 37 (01) 101-122 , viii
- 16 Brue T, Castinetti F. The risks of overlooking the diagnosis of secreting pituitary adenomas. Orphanet J Rare Dis 2016; 11 (01) 135
- 17 Cote DJ, Smith TR, Sandler CN. , et al. Functional gonadotroph adenomas: case series and report of literature. Neurosurgery 2016; 79 (06) 823-831
- 18 Monson JP. The epidemiology of endocrine tumours. Endocr Relat Cancer 2000; 7 (01) 29-36
- 19 Losa M, Mortini P, Barzaghi R, Franzin A, Giovanelli M. Endocrine inactive and gonadotroph adenomas: diagnosis and management. J Neurooncol 2001; 54 (02) 167-177
- 20 Kreutzer J, Buslei R, Wallaschofski H. , et al. Operative treatment of prolactinomas: indications and results in a current consecutive series of 212 patients. Eur J Endocrinol 2008; 158 (01) 11-18