Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37(02): 047-055
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400253
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Role of Kisspeptin and NKB in Puberty in Nonhuman Primates: Sex Differences

James P. Garcia
1  Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin
,
Kim L. Keen
1  Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin
,
Stephanie B. Seminara
2  Department of Medicine, Reproductive Endocrine Unit and the Harvard Reproductive Sciences Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
,
Ei Terasawa
1  Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin
3  Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin
› Author Affiliations
Funding Supported by NIH grants R01HD011355 and R01HD015433 to E.T., R01HD043341 and R01HD043341S1 to S.B.S., and R25GM083252 and T32HD041921 to J.P.G. This work was made possible by a support (OD011106) for the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center.
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
17 December 2019 (online)

Abstract

To understand the roles of kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) in puberty and sex differences in their involvement, we conducted a series of experiments measuring the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin in the median eminence of the hypothalamus in male and female monkeys throughout sexual development. Results indicate that kisspeptin-10 and the NKB agonist, senktide, stimulated GnRH release in males and females at the prepubertal and pubertal stages, but females are much more sensitive to kisspeptin signaling than males. Moreover, throughout the progress of puberty, major remodeling of kisspeptin and NKB signaling pathways for the regulation of GnRH release takes place. In females during puberty, reciprocal pathways (i.e., kisspeptin signaling mediated through NKB neurons and NKB signaling mediated through kisspeptin neurons) are established, to provide powerful and flexible mechanisms for GnRH neurosecretory activity necessary for complex female reproductive function in adulthood. By contrast, during puberty in males, reciprocal pathways are consolidated to a simpler kisspeptin-dominant signaling pathway. Nevertheless, in primates, both kisspeptin and NKB signaling are contributing factors for the pubertal increase in GnRH release, rather than initiating puberty.