Mucociliary Clearance of Different Respiratory Conditions: A Clinical StudyFunding This study was funded by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, in the Portuguese acronym) (grant number 2014/11970–3).
Introduction Mucociliary clearance (MCC) is the first line of defense of the pulmonary system. Mucociliary clearance impairment may lead to increased risk of respiratory infections, lung injury, pulmonary repair problems, chronic dysfunctions and progression of respiratory diseases.
Objective To characterize the MCC of active and passive smokers and individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and compare the MCC behaviors between men and women of different age groups.
Methods Patients with COPD (current smokers and ex-smokers) and apparently healthy individuals (current smokers, passive smokers and nonsmokers) were evaluated. All of the subjects underwent lung function and MCC evaluation (saccharin transport test [STT]). Smokers (with or without COPD) were questioned about the smoking history.
Results A total of 418 individuals aged 16 to 82 years old, of both genders, were evaluated. The STT values of active and passive smokers were statistically higher than those of the control group (p < 0.01). Men of the control group had lower values of STT than active smokers (9.7 ± 7.1 and 15.4 ± 10.1 minute, respectively, p < 0.01). In addition, higher MCC velocity was observed in women that are current smokers (11.7 ± 6.8 minute) compared with men (15.4 ± 10.1 minute) in this group (p = 0.01). Among the younger age groups (< 50 years old), only passive smokers presented higher STT in relation to the control group.
Conclusion Passive and active smoking are factors that influence negatively the MCC, and passive smokers may present losses of this mechanism at a younger age. Additionally, male smokers present worse MCC than male nonsmokers.
Keywordsmucociliary clearance - saccharin - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - smoking - passive smoking
All of the procedures performed in the present study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The data presented in the present study originates from other cohorts, all of which were approved by the institutional review board. (#18/2011; #07152212.0.0000.5402; and #00849812.0.0000.5402). Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Received: 22 July 2019
Accepted: 11 November 2019
24 April 2020 (online)
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