Semin Reprod Med 2020; 38(02/03): 216-226
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1718740
Review Article

Transvaginal Sonographic Imaging and Associated Techniques for Diagnosis of Ovarian, Deep Endometriosis, and Adenomyosis: A Comprehensive Review

Mee Kristine Aas-Eng
1  Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
2  Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
,
Eliana Montanari
3  Department of Gynecology, Certified Center for Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain, Hospital St. John of God, Vienna, Austria
4  Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
,
Marit Lieng
1  Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
2  Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
,
Joerg Keckstein
5  Stiftung Endometrioseforschung/Endometriosis Research Group Central Europe
,
Gernot Hudelist
3  Department of Gynecology, Certified Center for Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain, Hospital St. John of God, Vienna, Austria
5  Stiftung Endometrioseforschung/Endometriosis Research Group Central Europe
› Author Affiliations
Funding The authors confirm that no funding was received for this review.

Abstract

Imaging of endometriosis and in particular deep endometriosis (DE) is crucial in the clinical management of women facing this debilitating condition. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) is the first-line imaging method and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide supplemental information. However, the delay in diagnosis of up to 10 years and more is of concern. This problem might be overcome by simple steps using imaging with emphasis on TVS and referral to tertiary care. Finally, TVS is crucial in mapping extent and location of disease in planning surgical therapy and counseling women regarding various therapeutic options. This review presents the available data on imaging of endometriosis with a focus on TVS and MRI for DE, adenomyosis, and ovarian endometriomas including endometriomas in pregnancy as well as the use of “soft markers.” The review presents an approach that is in accordance with the International Deep Endometriosis Analysis (IDEA) group consensus statement.



Publication History

Publication Date:
24 November 2020 (online)

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