Subscribe to RSS
Preparation and Standardization of Nosodes Sourced from Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Salmonella Typhi, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae and Candida Albicans StrainsFunding None.
Background Homeopathic nosodes prepared from organisms and pathological tissues have shown biological effects, encouraging more research. There is a need to develop some new nosodes systematically and to re-make others that were developed over a century ago. In our program of work on nosodes, the bacterial strains Klebsiella pneumoniae (BAA 2146), Salmonella typhi and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ATCC 43069), and the single-celled fungus Candida albicans (24433, 26790, and 60193) have been identified for preparation.
Materials and Methods The systematic and scientific method of preparation of nosodes includes identification, culture, quantification, characterization, preparation, and standardization. Under laminar flow, a suspension of respective bacterial and fungal cells (20 billion cells/mL) was processed as per the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India (HPI). Culture tests, sterility tests and molecular testing (polymerase chain reaction) were performed to establish the absence of contamination, live organisms and DNA material.
Results K. pneumoniae, S. typhi (single, bivalent, or polyvalent), N. gonorrhoeae, and C. albicans nosodes (single and polyvalent) were sourced and prepared from different strains of respective cultures. The nosode preparations were processed by serial dilution and potentization, normally following the HPI guidelines. Molecular test results showed the absence of live organisms or DNA material; culture and sterility test results demonstrated the safety profile of the potentized nosodes.
Conclusion K. pneumoniae, S. typhi, N. gonorrhoeae and C. albicans nosodes were successfully prepared. Their therapeutic potential may now be evaluated.
KeywordsKlebsiella pneumonia - Salmonella typhi - Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Candida albicans - nosode - potentization - homeopathy
• In the series of work on nosodes, the bacterial strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae (BAA 2146), Salmonella typhi, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ATCC 43069) and the fungus Candida albicans (24433, 26790, and 60193) were identified.
• A systematic, standardized and scientific method of preparation of nosodes was documented.
• Safety of nosodes in 30c potency using sterility, culture and molecular tests was established.
Renuka Munshi provided the laboratory facility and contributed to the laboratory work and manuscript review. Gitanjali Talele contributed to laboratory work and manuscript writing. Rajesh Shah was the principal investigator and inventor of the drugs; he also conceptualized the study and contributed to laboratory work supervision, and manuscript writing.
Received: 31 July 2020
Accepted: 21 December 2020
09 June 2021 (online)
© 2021. Faculty of Homeopathy. This article is published by Thieme.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany
- 1 Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1st ed.. 4th Vol. New Delhi: Ministry of Health, Government of India; 1983: 136-137
- 2 Shah R. Clinical trial for the evaluation of a human immunodeficiency virus nosode in the treatment for human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2015; 9: 25-33
- 3 Shah R, Hepatitis C. Hepatitis C nosode: the preparation and homeopathic pathogenetic trial. Homeopathy 2013; 102: 207-214
- 4 Joshi S, Mukerjee S, Vaidya S, Talele G, Chowdhary A, Shah R. Preparation, standardization and in vitro safety testing of Mycobacterium nosodes (Emtact-polyvalent nosode). Homeopathy 2016; 105: 225-232
- 5 Joshi S, Munshi R, Talele G, Shah R. An experimental in vitro study to evaluate the antimalarial activity of select homeopathy preparations. Int J Med Health Res 2017; 8: 9
- 6 Shah R. Preparation and standardization of Human papillomavirus (HPV) (Genotype 6) nosode. Int J High Dilution Res 2019; 18: 13-18
- 7 Allen HC. The Materia Medica of the Nosodes. With Provings of the X-ray. New Delhi: Jain Publishers; 1988: 544
- 8 Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Mondal J, Shah R. Therapeutic potential of HIV nosode 30c as evaluated in A549 lung cancer cells. Homeopathy 2017; 106: 203-213
- 9 Shah R. Clinical trial for the evaluation of a Hep C nosode in the treatment for Hepatitis C (HCV) positive participants. J Altern Complement Med 2016; 22: 197-203
- 10 Boericke W. Pocket Manual of Homeopathic Materia Medica. 9th ed.. New Delhi: Jain Publishers; 1981: 511
- 11 Julian OA. Materia Medica of Nosodes with Repertory. Treatise on Dynamised Micro-Immunotherapy. Part II: Materia Medica of Biotherapic Nosodes. New Delhi: Jain Publishers; 2003: 452
- 12 Health Canada. Drugs and Health Products: Nosodes. Accessed June 28, 2019 at: http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/atReq.do?atid=nosodes&lang=eng
- 13 Julian OA. Materia Medica of Nosodes with Repertory. Treatise on Dynamised Micro-Immunotherapy. Part I: Isopathic Concretology; Part II: Materia Medica of Biotherapic Nosodes; Part III: Repertory (Translated from original French by Rajkumar Mukherji). 1st Indian ed.. New Delhi: Jain Publishers; 1984: 237 , 383, 431
- 14 Drugs and Health Products—Nosodes. Health Canada; 2015. . Accessed July 19, 2019 at: http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/atReq.do?atid=nosodes&lang=eng
- 15 Kurylo E. Etymologia: Neisseria . Emerg Infect Dis 2016; 22: 1141
- 16 Allen HC. Materia Medica of Nosodes with X-ray Provings. New Delhi: Jain Publisher; 1988: 295
- 17 Hering C. The Guiding Symptoms of Our Materia Medica. Vol. 7. New Delhi: Jain Publishers; 1989: 292-324
- 18 Whole Health Now's Biography Database of Over 150 Homeopaths Past & Present. Samuel Swan, MD. Accessed August 12, 2019 at: http://www.wholehealthnow.com/bios/samuel-swan.html
- 19 Dr. Willmar Schwabe, India.. Medorrhinum CH. . Accessed August 12, 2019 at: https://www.schwabeindia.com/3055-medorrhinum.html
- 20 Julian OA. Materia Medica of Nosodes with Repertory Treatise on Dynamised Micro-Immunotherapy, Part II Materia Medica of Biotherapic Nosodes. Translated from Original French by Rajkumar Mukherji. 1st Indian ed.. New Delhi: Jain Publishers; 1984: 351
- 21 Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Guidelines for Manufacturing Homeopathic Medicines: Attenuations from microscopic fungal raw materials. Accessed September 5, 2019 at: http://www.hpus.com/Draft-Guidelines-for-Manufacturing-Homeopathic-Medicines.pdf
- 22 Shah R. Standardization of the potentizing machine and quantification of the impact of potentization. Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2016; 10: 126-132
- 23 Singh GN. Indian Pharmacopoeia. New Delhi: The Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; 2010: 57-58
- 24 Hering C. The Guiding Symptoms of Our Materia Medica. Reprint.. Vol. 8. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers; 1989: 538
- 25 Allen TF. The Encyclopedia of Pure Materia Medica. Vol. 8. New Delhi: Jain Publishers; 1988: 164
- 26 Allen HC. The Materia Medica of the Nosodes. With Provings of the X-ray. New Delhi: Jain Publishers; 1988: 23
- 27 Allen HC. The Materia Medica of the Nosodes. With Provings of the X-ray. New Delhi: Jain Publishers; 1988: 139
- 28 Allen HC. The Materia Medica of the Nosodes. With Provings of the X-ray. New Delhi: Jain Publishers; 1988: 1
- 29 Allen HC. The Materia Medica of the Nosodes. With Provings of the X-ray. New Delhi: Jain Publishers; 1988: 494
- 30 Lin TH, Huang SH, Wu CC. et al. Inhibition of Klebsiella pneumoniae growth and capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis by Fructus Mume. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; 2013: 621701
- 31 Paczosa MK, Mecsas J. Klebsiella pneumoniae: going on the offense with a strong defense. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2016; 80: 629-661
- 32 Reis RS, Horn F. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Samonella, Shigella and Yersinia: cellular aspects of host-bacteria interactions in enteric diseases. Gut Pathog 2010; 2: 8
- 33 Galanos C, Freudenberg MA. Bacterial endotoxins: biological properties and mechanisms of action. Mediators Inflamm 1993; 2: S11-S16
- 34 Todar's Online Book of Bacteriology. Pathogenic Neisseriae: Gonorrhea, Neonatal Ophthalmia, and Meningococcal Meningitis. Virulence factors. P.3. Accessed July 16, 2019 at: http://textbookofbacteriology.net/neisseria_3.html
- 35 Heads of Medicines Agencies. Homeopathic Medicinal Products Working Group. Guidance on Module 3.2.S for Nosodes. Accessed July 16, 2019 at: http://www.hma.eu/fileadmin/dateien/Human_Medicines/01-About_HMA/Working_Groups/HMPWG/2_GUIDANCE_ON_MODULE_3.2.S_for_NOSODES.pdf
- 36 World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines on Viral Inactivation and Removal Procedures Intended to Assure the Viral Safety of Human Blood Plasma Products. WHO Technical Report, Series No. 924; 2004: 150-225