CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology 2021; 4(03): 177-193
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1728235
Review Article

Imaging of Portal Gastroduodenopathy

Rajesh V. Helavar
1   Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Columbia Asia Radiology Group, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Vidyasagar Ramappa
2   Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Columbia Asia Referral Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Praveen P. Wali
3   Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Columbia Asia Radiology Group, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
› Author Affiliations


Portal hypertension is characterized by elevated pressure in portal venous system due to portal resistance due to various causes. The etiologies are either pre-hepatic, hepatic, or post-hepatic. Elevated portal pressure results in varices at various sites some of which are difficult to identify on endoscopy alone. Other manifestations of elevated portal pressure include portal gastropathy, enteropathy, colopathy, gastric antral vascular ectasia, and ascites. Imaging plays an essential role in diagnosis and imaging of various manifestations of portal hypertension by determining the locations of varices and plan the management for same. Endoscopy helps in visualizing mucosal varices but newer imaging modalities give a panoramic extent of the disease in the entire gastrointestinal tract with great specificity and sensitivity. Initially, Barium study was used to determine esophageal or gastric varices, computed tomography provides detailed anatomic information which can be used to plan management. Due to advancement in imaging and interventional techniques, treatment for varices has seen advent of multiple minimally invasive interventional radiological techniques. A brief outlook on anatomical aspect of varices and various recent advances in management of the same has been provided. Overall knowledge of the various imaging manifestations of portal hypertension can be helpful to evaluate prognosis and plan proper management.

Publication History

Article published online:
09 August 2021

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