Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2021; 42(04): 549-555
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730894
Review Article

Clinical and Radiological Phenotypes and Endotypes

Ricardo J. José
1  Respiratory Medicine, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom
2  Centre for Inflammation and Tissue Repair, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Michael R. Loebinger
1  Respiratory Medicine, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom
3  National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
› Author Affiliations


Bronchiectasis is a heterogenous disease with multiple etiologies and associated comorbidities. As bronchiectasis is a complex disease, it is unsound to think of it as a single disease particularly when the differing etiologies are likely to be driving bronchiectasis through initial divergent molecular pathways, known as endotypes, that phenotypically present as the same disease due to protracted airway inflammation, but revealing potential differing underlying mechanisms that may have disparity of drug responses. Improved understanding of the cellular immune, inflammatory, and microbiological milieu associated with clinical and radiological features of bronchiectasis has resulted in the recognition of important endotypes and phenotypes that will allow for personalized treatments to improve quality of life and outcomes of patients with bronchiectasis. Here we discuss clinical and radiological phenotypes, as well as emerging molecular endotypes that are possible treatable traits in bronchiectasis.

Publication History

Publication Date:
14 July 2021 (online)

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