Digestive Disease Interventions
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1747932
Review Article

Ectopic Varices: A Primer

1   Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
,
1   Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
› Author Affiliations
Funding No funding was provided for this study.

Abstract

Esophageal varices (EV) are observed in patients with cirrhotic and noncirrhotic portal hypertension. Ectopic varices (ECV) occur outside the esophagogastric region, are less common, and often more challenging to diagnose and effectively manage. The absence of an EV source on endoscopy should raise concern for ECV in patients with significant non-arterial bleeding within the abdomen or gastrointestinal tract. Patient clinical factors including cirrhosis, portal vein thrombosis, and prior abdominal or pelvic surgery warrant an approach for identifying a treatable ECV source. This article offers a descriptive approach to diagnosing and managing ECV in patients with portal hypertension.



Publication History

Received: 27 November 2021

Accepted: 03 February 2022

Article published online:
01 June 2022

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