CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Health and Allied Sciences NU 2023; 13(01): 046-052
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1748805
Original Article

Knowledge of the Health Implications of Oral Sex among Registered Nurses in Nigeria: An Online Pilot Study

Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi
1   Campaign for Head and Neck Cancer Education (CHANCE) Programme, Cephas Health Research Initiative Inc, Ibadan, Nigeria
2   Department of Community Health, Aminu Musa Habib College of Health Science and Technology, Yauri, Nigeria
3   School of Health and Life Sciences, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom
Jacob Njideka Nwafor
1   Campaign for Head and Neck Cancer Education (CHANCE) Programme, Cephas Health Research Initiative Inc, Ibadan, Nigeria
Babatunde Abiodun Amoo
1   Campaign for Head and Neck Cancer Education (CHANCE) Programme, Cephas Health Research Initiative Inc, Ibadan, Nigeria
4   African Field Epidemiology Network, Abuja, Nigeria
Lawrence Achilles Nnyanzi
3   School of Health and Life Sciences, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom
Mike Eghosa Ogbeide
1   Campaign for Head and Neck Cancer Education (CHANCE) Programme, Cephas Health Research Initiative Inc, Ibadan, Nigeria
Abdullahi Adamu Hundeji
2   Department of Community Health, Aminu Musa Habib College of Health Science and Technology, Yauri, Nigeria
› Author Affiliations


Introduction Oral sex is a pleasurable act that has its health implications, particularly sexually transmitted oral infections. In Nigeria, nurses constitute one of the at-risk population groups due to reports of risky sexual behavior among them. This study seeks to investigate the knowledge of nurses in Nigeria on the health implications of oral sex.

Methods This study was a survey of a pilot volunteer sample (n = 129) of registered nurses in Nigeria. The study tool was an anonymous questionnaire that was circulated electronically to nurses via social media platforms. Data collected was analyzed using the SPSS Version 20 software (IBM Corp, New York, New York, United States).

Results The majority (90.7%) of the 129 respondents had received training on oral health, 49.6% had engaged in oral sex before, and 58.1% were willing to engage in oral sex in future. History of previous oral health training was the only background characteristic found to be statistically significantly associated with the knowledge of oral sex-related health implications among nurses (p-value = 0.004); other characteristics (such as gender, age, and marital status) were not statistically significant (p-values >0.05). From multivariate analysis, history of oral health training was also found to be a statistically significant predictor of such knowledge (p-value = 0.015).

Conclusion Oral health knowledge is a significant determinant of the knowledge of oral sex-related health implications. This study also provides the preliminary evidence that forms the base on which further research should be conducted in this area.

Publication History

Article published online:
20 June 2022

© 2022. Nitte (Deemed to be University). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
A-12, 2nd Floor, Sector 2, Noida-201301 UP, India

  • References

  • 1 National Health Service. Sex activities and risk. Accessed April 14, 2022 from:
  • 2 Fuchs W, Brockmeyer NH. Sexually transmitted infections. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2014; 12 (06) 451-463
  • 3 Chesson HW, Mayaud P, Aral SO. Sexually transmitted infections: impact and cost-effectiveness of prevention. In: Holmes KK, Bertozzi S, Bloom BR, Jha P. eds. Major Infectious Diseases. 3rd edition. Washington (DC): The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank; 2017. Nov 3. Chapter 10
  • 4 Nguyen NP, Nguyen LM, Thomas S. et al; International Geriatric Radiation Oncology Group. Oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer: the role of the primary care physicians. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95 (28) e4228 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000004228.
  • 5 Nolte S, Sohn MA, Koons B. Prevention of HIV infection in women. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 1993; 22 (02) 128-134
  • 6 World Health Organization. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Accessed April 14, 2022 from:
  • 7 Zheng Y, Yu Q, Lin Y. et al. Global burden and trends of sexually transmitted infections from 1990 to 2019: an observational trend study. Lancet Infect Dis 2021; x: S1473
  • 8 Sekoni AO, Odukoya OO, Onajole AT, Odeyemi KA. Sexually transmitted infections: prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices among female sex workers in a cosmopolitan city in Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health 2013; 17 (01) 94-102
  • 9 Oyeyemi OT, Fadipe O, Oyeyemi IT. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in Nigerian pregnant women and risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections. Int J STD AIDS 2016; 27 (13) 1187-1193
  • 10 Burd EM. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Clin Microbiol Rev 2003; 16 (01) 1-17
  • 11 Wang CJ, Palefsky JM. HPV-associated anal cancer in the HIV/AIDS patient. Cancer Treat Res 2019; 177: 183-209
  • 12 Naicker S. HIV/AIDS and chronic kidney disease. Clin Nephrol 2020; 93 (01) 87-93
  • 13 Ochsendorf FR. Sexually transmitted infections: impact on male fertility. Andrologia 2008; 40 (02) 72-75
  • 14 Blanc Molina A, Rojas Tejada AJ. Uso del preservativo, número de parejas y debut sexual en jóvenes en coito vaginal, sexo oral y sexo anal. [Condom use, number of partners and sexual debut in young people in penile-vaginal intercourse, oral sex and anal sex] Rev Int Androl 2018; 16 (01) 8-14
  • 15 Holway GV, Hernandez SM. Oral sex and condom use in a U.S. National Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults. J Adolesc Health 2018; 62 (04) 402-410
  • 16 Habel MA, Leichliter JS, Dittus PJ, Spicknall IH, Aral SO. Heterosexual anal and oral sex in adolescents and adults in the United States, 2011-2015. Sex Transm Dis 2018; 45 (12) 775-782
  • 17 Chaturvedi AK, Anderson WF, Lortet-Tieulent J. et al. Worldwide trends in incidence rates for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers. J Clin Oncol 2013; 31 (36) 4550-4559
  • 18 Ellington TD, Henley SJ, Senkomago V. et al. Trends in incidence of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx - United States 2007-2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020; 69 (15) 433-438
  • 19 Morhason-Bello IO, Kabakama S, Baisley K, Francis SC, Watson-Jones D. Reported oral and anal sex among adolescents and adults reporting heterosexual sex in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Reprod Health 2019; 16 (01) 48 DOI: 10.1186/s12978-019-0722-9.
  • 20 Kanmodi KK, Amoo BA, Sopeju AE, Adeniyi OR. Oral cancer and oral sex: awareness and practice among nursing students in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. Asian J Med Health 2017; 2 (04) 29935
  • 21 Kanmodi KK, Nnebedum N, Bello M, Adesina M, Fagbule OF, Adesoye O. Head and neck cancer awareness: a survey of young people in international communities. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2019; 33 (04) 20180231
  • 22 Kanmodi K, Kanmodi P, Ogbeide M, Nwafor J. Head and neck cancer literacy in Nigeria: a systematic review of the literature. Ann Public Health Issues 2021; 1: 25-49
  • 23 Nwafor NJ, Kanmodi KK, Amoo BA. How enlightening and reliable are cancer–related posts on social media platforms? Opinions of a sample of Nigerians. J Health Allied Sci 2021; 11: 141-146
  • 24 Kanmodi K, Fagbule O, Ogunniyi K. et al. Determinants of sexual practices among secondary school students in Nigeria: focusing on socio-cultural and school-related factors. Rwanda Med J 2020; 77 (04) 32-37
  • 25 Kanmodi KK, Kanmodi PA. Rising prevalence of head and neck cancer risk factors among Nigerian adolescents: a call for school-based intervention programmes. Popul Med 2020; 2: 13
  • 26 Kanmodi KK, Fagbule OF. Towards head and neck cancer prevention in Nigeria: insights from the CHANCE programme. Popul Med 2020; 2 (June): 16
  • 27 Kanmodi KK, Osunro KS, Nwafor NJ, Kanmodi PA. Impact of head and neck cancer (HNC) education on HNC knowledge and attitudes toward HNC peer and non-peer education: a school-based pilot study. Yen Med J 2020; 2 (02) 47-55
  • 28 Kanmodi KK, Chidiebere O, Nwafor NJ, Amoo BA. Knowledge of HPV, HPV-induced cancers, and HPV vaccine among university students in medical laboratory science disciplines: Nigerian study. J Obstet Gynecol Investig 2020; 3: e1-e7
  • 29 Kanmodi KK, Ogbeide ME, Fagbule OF. et al. Knowledge of HPV, HPV-induced cancers, and HPV vaccine among a sample of freshmen in a northwestern Nigeria monotechnic. Int J Med Res Health Sci 2019; 8 (12) 110-115
  • 30 Kanmodi KK, Mohammed AF, Omoleke SA. et al. Head and neck cancer risk factors among a pilot sample of Nigerian shisha smokers: Focus on oral sex, tobacco, alcohol, and knowledge of head and neck cancer. J Dent Orofac Res 2019; 15 (02) 49-57
  • 31 Kanmodi KK, Ogbeide ME, Fagbule OF, Omoleke SA, Isola TO, Ogundipe PA. Do college freshmen know about head and neck cancer and its risk factors? Experience from Gwadabawa, Nigeria. Int J Med Res Health Sci 2019; 8 (09) 111-116
  • 32 Kanmodi KK, Fagbule FO. Does head and neck cancer (HNC) education have impact on adolescents' knowledge and attitude towards HNC and HNC peer education? An example from Nigeria. Intl J Child Adolesc Health 2018; 11 (03) 343-347
  • 33 Kanmodi KK, Fagbule OF, Aladelusi TO. Prevalence of shisha (waterpipe) smoking and awareness of head and neck cancer among Nigerian secondary school students: a preliminary survey. Int Public Health J 2018; 10 (02) 210-214
  • 34 Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. STD risk and oral sex – CDC Fact Sheet. Accessed April 14, 2022 from:
  • 35 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dental dam use. Accessed April 14, 2022 from:
  • 36 Lissoni A, Agliardi E, Peri A, Marchioni R, Abati S. Oral microbiome and mucosal trauma as risk factors for oral cancer: beyond alcohol and tobacco. A literature review. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2020; 34 (06, Suppl 3): 11-18
  • 37 Bui TC, Tran LT, Markham CM. et al. Self-reported oral health, oral hygiene, and oral HPV infection in at-risk women in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015; 120 (01) 34-42
  • 38 Ljubojević S, Skerlev M, Alajbeg I. Manifestacije spolno prenosivih bolesti na oralnoj sluznici. [Manifestations of sexually transmitted diseases on oral mucous membranes] Acta Med Croatica 2013; 67 (05) 439-446
  • 39 Chakhtoura N, Hazra R, Spong CY. Zika virus: a public health perspective. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2018; 30 (02) 116-122
  • 40 Capra G, Schillaci R, Bosco L, Roccheri MC, Perino A, Ragusa MA. HPV infection in semen: results from a new molecular approach. Epidemiol Infect 2019; 147: e177 DOI: 10.1017/S0950268819000621.
  • 41 Queirós C, Costa JBD. Oral transmission of sexually transmissable infections: a narrative review. Acta Med Port 2019; 32 (12) 776-781
  • 42 Edwards S, Carne C. Oral sex and the transmission of viral STIs. Sex Transm Infect 1998; 74 (01) 6-10
  • 43 Leslie K. Survey Sampling. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc; 1965
  • 44 Kanmodi KK, Kanmodi PA. A call for the inclusion of a course on basic oral healthcare practice into the Nigerian nursing and midwifery education curriculum. Polish Annals of Medicine. 2021; 28 (02) 256-258
  • 45 Sulaiman AO, Kanmodi KK. Awareness of restorative dental treatment as shown by nursing students in Ibadan. J Stoma. 2016; 69 (06) 667-673
  • 46 Fagbule OF, Kanmodi KK, Aliemeke EO. et al. Knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine among senior secondary school students in Nigeria: implications on cancer prevention strategies, the CHANCE Study. Population Medicine. 2020; 2 (October): 31 DOI: 10.18332/popmed/127237.