Endoscopy 2018; 50(01): 52-62
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-119215
Original article
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Cold-forceps avulsion with adjuvant snare-tip soft coagulation (CAST) is an effective and safe strategy for the management of non-lifting large laterally spreading colonic lesions

David J. Tate1, 2, Farzan F. Bahin1, 2, Lobke Desomer2, Mayenaaz Sidhu2, Vikas Gupta2, Michael J. Bourke1, 2
  • 1Westmead Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Single-Center Prospective Observational Study with Consecutive Patients NCT2000141 at clinicaltrials.gov.
Further Information

Publication History

submitted 21 April 2017

accepted after revision 17 July 2017

Publication Date:
11 October 2017 (eFirst)


Background and aims Non-lifting large laterally spreading colorectal lesions (LSLs) are challenging to resect endoscopically and often necessitate surgery. A safe, simple technique to treat non-lifting LSLs endoscopically with robust long-term outcomes has not been described.

Methods In this single-center prospective observational study of consecutive patients referred for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of LSLs ≥ 20 mm, LSLs not completely resectable by snare because of non-lifting underwent standardized completion of resection with cold-forceps avulsion and adjuvant snare-tip soft coagulation (CAST). Scheduled surveillance colonoscopies were performed at 4 – 6 months (SC1) and 18 months (SC2). Primary outcomes were endoscopic evidence of adenoma clearance and avoidance of surgery. The secondary outcome was safety.

Results From January 2012 to October 2016, 540 lifting LSLs (82.2 %) underwent complete snare excision at EMR. CAST was required for complete removal in 101 non-lifting LSLs (17.8 %): 63 naïve non-lifting lesions (NNLs; 62.7 %) and 38 previously attempted non-lifting lesions (PANLs; 37.3 %). PANLs were smaller (P < 0.001) and more likely to be non-granular (P = 0.001) than the lifting LSLs. NNLs were of similar size (P = 0.77) and morphology (P = 0.10) to the lifting LSLs. CAST was successful in all cases and adverse events were comparable to lifting LSLs resected by complete snare excision. Recurrence at SC1 was comparable for PANLs (15.2 %) and lifting LSLs (15.3 %; P = 0.99), whereas NNLs recurred more frequently (27.5 %; P = 0.049); however, surgery was no more common for either type of non-lifting LSL than for lifting LSLs.

Conclusion CAST is a safe, effective, and surgery-sparing therapy for the majority of non-lifting LSLs. It is easy to use, inexpensive, and does not require additional equipment.