Psychiatr Prax 2001; 28(3): 105-114
DOI: 10.1055/s-2001-12668
© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

Belastungen von Angehörigen psychisch Kranker

Entwicklungslinien, Konzepte und Ergebnisse der ForschungBurdens on Relatives of Patients with Psychiatric Disorders - Development, Concepts and Results of ResearchJohannes Jungbauer, Jeannette Bischkopf, Matthias  C. Angermeyer
  • Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie, Universität Leipzig
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
31 December 2001 (online)


Zielsetzung: Anliegen des Beitrags ist es, einen Überblick über Entwicklungen und Ergebnisse der Angehörigenforschung in der Psychiatrie zu geben. Ergebnisse: In zahlreichen Forschungsarbeiten wurde dokumentiert, dass Angehörige psychisch Kranker mit erheblichen Einschränkungen und Problemen konfrontiert sind. Inwieweit die Symptome und das Verhalten des Patienten von den Angehörigen als belastend erlebt werden, hängt entscheidend von deren kognitiv-emotionalen Prozessen und psychosozialen Ressourcen ab. Professionelle Unterstützungsangebote können eine wesentliche Entlastung für Angehörige bewirken. Diskussion: Trotz theoretischer und methodologischer Probleme konnten die vielfältigen Belastungen und die Bewältigungsversuche von Angehörigen psychisch Kranker eindrucksvoll belegt werden. Künftige Forschungsarbeiten sollten eine noch differenziertere Betrachtung erkrankungs- und beziehungsspezifischer Belastungslagen anstreben. Die Nutzung stresstheoretischer Konzepte erscheint hierfür besonders gut geeignet.

Burdens on Relatives of Patients with Psychiatric Disorders - Development, Concepts and Results of Research

Objective: A review of the findings in the research literature on the effect of mental illness on other members of the patient’s family is provided. This article critically examines the research to date with special reference to the conceptual and operational definitions of burden and methodological issues. Results: The burdens of caring for a patient at home are considerable throughout different patient groups. Relatives’ experience of burden is influenced by their cognitive appraisal of the situation and their psychosocial resources of coping with it. Research findings suggest that information and support provided by clinicians can alleviate caregiver burden, although it has been used too rarely in clinical routine. Conclusions: Finally, the review identifies advances made in this line of research in recent years and highlights areas that need further attention in future research work. Systematic research of families’ responses to and management of mental illness should move beyond the more global concept of family and address the great diversity among families with mentally ill relatives. Furthermore, given the lack of consensus regarding the theoretical conceptualizing of the burden concept a new framework with reference to stressrelated research is suggested.


  • 1 Häfner H. Psychiatrische Rehabilitation: Wo stehen wir heute?. In: Mauthe JH (Hrsg) Rehabilitationspsychiatrie. Stuttgart; Enke 1998: 30-52
  • 2 Angermeyer M C, Matschinger H, Holzinger A. Akzeptanz gemeindenaher Reformen in der Bevölkerung.  Psychiat Prax. 1999;  26 16-21
  • 3 Vieten B, Brinkmann H. Zufriedenheit der Angehörigen im Prozess der Deinstitutionaliserung.  Psychiat Prax. 2000;  27 221-227
  • 4 Angermeyer M C, Becker T, Frey C. Grenzen der Deinstitutionalisierung? Allgemeine Aspekte und Entwicklung in Sachsen.  Psychiat Prax. 2000;  27 37-38
  • 5 Bauer M. Der „schwierige” Patient in der Gemeindepsychiatrie.  Psychiat Prax. 2000;  27 1-5
  • 6 Seelhorst R-M. Grenzen der Deinstitutionalisierung - Perspektiven der Angehörigen psychisch Kranker.  Psychiat Prax. 2000;  27 64-67
  • 7 Clausen J A, Yarrow M R. The impacts of mental illness on the family.  Journal of Social Issues. 1955;  11 3-64
  • 8 Grad J, Sainsbury P. Problems of caring for the mentally ill at home.  Proc R Soc Med. 1966;  59 20-23
  • 9 Hoenig J, Hamilton M W. The schizophrenic patient in the community and his effect on the household.  Int J Soc Psychiatry. 1966;  12 165-176
  • 10 Baronet A M. Factors associated with caregiver burden in mental illness: a critical review of the research literature.  Clin Psychol Rev. 1999;  19 819-841
  • 11 Maurin J T, Boyd C B. Burden of mental illness on the family: a critical review.  Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 1990;  4 99-107
  • 12 Barrowclough C, Parle M. Appraisal, psychological adjustment and expressed emotion in relatives of patients suffering from schizophrenia.  Br J Psychiatry. 1997;  171 26-30
  • 13 Magliano L, Fadden G, Madianos M, de Almeida J M, Held T, Guarneri M. et al . Burden on the families of patients with schizophrenia: results of the BIOMED I study.  Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1998;  33 405-412
  • 14 Solomon P, Draine J. Adaptive coping among family members of persons with serious mental illness.  Psychiatr Serv. 1995;  46 1156-1160
  • 15 Solomon P, Draine J. Subjective burden among family members of mentally ill adults: relation to stress, coping, and adaptation.  Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1995;  65 419-427
  • 16 Lazarus R S, Folkman S. The concept of coping. In: Monat A, Lazarus RS (ed) Stress and coping: An anthology. New York; Columbia University Press 1989: 189-206
  • 17 Lazarus R S, Folkman S. Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York; Springer 1984
  • 18 Doornbos M M. The strengths of families coping with serious mental illness.  Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 1996;  10 214-220
  • 19 Greenberg J S, Greenley J R, Benedict P. Contributions of persons with serious mental illness to their families.  Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1994;  45 475-480
  • 20 Horwitz A V, Reinhard S C, Howell-White S. Caregiving as reciprocal exchange in families with seriously mentally ill members.  J Health Soc Behav. 1996;  37 149-162
  • 21 Pickett S A, Cook J A, Cohler B J, Solomon M L. Positive parent/adult child relationships: impact of severe mental illness and caregiving burden.  Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1997;  67 220-230
  • 22 Jones S L, Roth D, Jones P K. Effect of demographic and behavioral variables on burden of caregivers of chronic mentally ill persons (see comments).  Psychiatr Serv. 1995;  46 141-145
  • 23 Song L Y, Biegel D E, Milligan S E. Predictors of depressive symptomatology among lower social class caregivers of persons with chronic mental illness.  Community Ment Health J. 1997;  33 269-286
  • 24 Thompson E H, Doll W. The burden of families coping with the mentally ill: an invisible crisis.  Family Relations. 1982;  31 379-388
  • 25 Noh S, Turner R J. Living with psychiatric patients: implications for the mental health of family members.  Soc Sci Med. 1987;  25 263-702
  • 26 Noh S, Avison W R. Spouses of discharged psychiatric patients: factors associated with their experience of burden.  Journal of Marriage and the Family. 1988;  50 377-389
  • 27 Reinhard S C. Living with mental illness: effects of professional support and personal control on caregiver burden.  Res Nurs Health. 1994;  17 79-88
  • 28 Benazon N R, Coyne J C. Living with a depressed spouse.  J Fam Psychol. 2000;  14 71-79
  • 29 Fadden G, Bebbington P, Kuipers L. The burden of care: the impact of functional psychiatric illness on the patient's family.  Br J Psychiatry. 1987;  150 285-92
  • 30 Jacob M, Frank E, Kupfer D J, Carpenter L L. Recurrent depression: an assessment of family burden and family attitudes.  J Clin Psychiatry. 1987;  48 395-400
  • 31 Jones S L, Jones P K. Caregiver burden: who the caregivers are, how they give care, and what bothers them.  Journal of Health & Social Policy. 1994;  6 71-89
  • 32 Sennekamp W. Aspekte der emotionalen Belastung von Angehörigen Schizophrener.  Psychiat Prax. 1995;  22 27-29
  • 33 Gibbons J S, Horn S H, Powell J M, Gibbons J L. Schizophrenic patients and their families. A survey in a psychiatric service based on a DGH unit.  Br J Psychiatry. 1984;  144 70-77
  • 34 Wasow M. Chronic schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The losses for parents, spouses and children compared.  J Chronic Dis. 1985;  38 711-716
  • 35 Mannion E, Mueser K, Solomon P. Designing psychoeducational services for spouses of persons with serious mental illness.  Community Ment Health J. 1994;  30 177-190
  • 36 Magliano L, Fadden G, Fiorillo A, Malangone C, Sorrentino D, Robinson A. et al . Family burden and coping strategies in schizophrenia: are key relatives really different to other relatives? (In Process Citation).  Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1999;  99 10-15
  • 37 Dixon L. The next generation of research: views of a sibling-psychiatrist-researcher.  Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1997;  67 242-248
  • 38 Greenberg J S, Kim H W, Greenley J R. Factors associated with subjective burden in siblings of adults with severe mental illness.  Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1997;  67 231-241
  • 39 Horwitz A V, Reinhard S C. Ethnic differences in caregiving duties and burdens among parents and siblings of persons with severe mental illnesses.  J Health Soc Behav. 1995;  36 138-150
  • 40 Horwitz A V. Siblings as caregivers for the seriously mentally ill.  Milbank Q. 1993;  71 323-339
  • 41 Mattejat F, Lisofsky B. „Nicht von schlechten Eltern!” - Kinder psychisch Kranker. Bonn; Psychiatrie-Verlag 1998
  • 42 Downey G, Coyne J C. Children of depressed parents: an integrative review.  Psychol Bull. 1990;  108 50-76
  • 43 Hoenig J, Hamilton M W. The desegregation of the mentally ill. London; Routledge and Kegan Paul 1969
  • 44 Coyne J C, Kessler R C, Tal M, Turnbull J, Wortman C B, Greden J F. Living with a depressed person.  J Consult Clin Psychol. 1987;  55 347-352
  • 45 Bebbington P, Kuipers L. The predictive utility of expressed emotion in schizophrenia: an aggregate analysis (published erratum appears in Psychol Med 1995 Jan; 25: 215).  Psychol Med. 1994;  24 707-718
  • 46 Chambless D L, Steketee G. Expressed emotion and behavior therapy outcome: a prospective study with obsessive-compulsive and agoraphobic outpatients.  J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999;  67 658-665
  • 47 Kavanagh D J. Recent developments in expressed emotion and schizophrenia.  Br J Psychiatry. 1992;  160 601-620
  • 48 Hahlweg K. Interaktionelle Aspekte psychischer Störungen. In: Ehlers A, Hahlweg K (Hrsg) Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Band 1: Grundlagen der klinischen Psychologie. Braunschweig; Hogrefe-Verlag 1996: 585-648
  • 49 Scazufca M, Kuipers E. Coping strategies in relatives of people with schizophrenia before and after psychiatric admission.  Br J Psychiatry. 1999;  174 154-158
  • 50 Scazufca M, Kuipers E. Links between expressed emotion and burden of care in relatives of patients with schizophrenia.  Br J Psychiatry. 1996;  168 580-587
  • 51 Scherrmann T E. Belastungs-Bewältigungs-Prozesse bei Familien schizophrener Patienten: Eine empirische Studie über Belastung und Bewältigungsstrategien von Angehörigen schizophrener Patienten in bezug zum emotionalen Familienklima und zum Krankheitsverlauf. Tübingen; 1995
  • 52 Smith J, Birchwood M, Cochrane R, George S. The needs of high and low expressed emotion families: a normative approach.  Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1993;  28 11-16
  • 53 Chwalisz K, Kisler V. Assessment in action - Perceived stress: A better measure of caregiver burden.  Measurement and evaluation in counseling and development. 1995;  28 88-98
  • 54 Schene A H, Tessler R C, Gamache G M. Instruments measuring family or caregiver burden in severe mental illness.  Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1994;  29 228-240
  • 55 Magliano L, Marasco C, Guarneri M, Malangone C, Lacrimini G, Zanus P. et al . A new questionnaire assessing the opinions of the relatives of patients with schizophrenia on the causes and social consequences of the disorder: reliability and validity.  Eur Psychiatry. 1999;  14 71-75
  • 56 Magliano L, Guarneri M, Marasco C, Tosini P, Morosini P L, Maj M. A new questionnaire assessing coping strategies in relatives of patients with schizophrenia: development and factor analysis.  Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1996;  94 224-228
  • 57 Schofield H L, Murphy B, Herrman H E, Bloch S, Singh B. Family caregiving: measurement of emotional well-being and various aspects of the caregiving role.  Psychol Med. 1997;  27 647-657
  • 58 Szmukler G I, Burgess P, Herrman H, Benson A, Colusa S, Bloch S. Caring for relatives with serious mental illness: the development of the Experience of Caregiving Inventory.  Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1996;  31 137-148
  • 59 Levene J E, Lancee W J, Seeman M V. The perceived family burden scale: measurement and validation.  Schizophr Res. 1996;  22 151-157
  • 60 Reinhard S C. Living with mental illness: effects of professional support and personal control on caregiver burden.  Res Nurs Health. 1994;  17 79-88
  • 61 Perlick D, Stastny P, Mattis S, Teresi J. Contribution of family, cognitive and clinical dimensions to long-term outcome in schizophrenia.  Schizophr Res. 1992;  6 257-265
  • 62 Provencher H L, Mueser K T. Positive and negative symptom behaviors and caregiver burden in the relatives of persons with schizophrenia.  Schizophr Res. 1997;  26 71-80
  • 63 Runions J, Prudo R. Problem behaviours encountered by families living with a schizophrenic member.  Can J Psychiatry. 1983;  28 382-386
  • 64 Schene A H. Objective and subjective dimensions of family burden. Towards an integrative framework for research.  Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1990;  25 289-297
  • 65 Tucker C, Barker A, Gregoire A. Living with schizophrenia: caring for a person with a severe mental illness.  Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1998;  33 305-309
  • 66 Mueser K T, Valentiner D P, Agresta J. Coping with negative symptoms of schizophrenia: patient and family perspectives.  Schizophr Bull. 1997;  23 329-339
  • 67 Budd R J, Oles G, Hughes I C. The relationship between coping style and burden in the carers of relatives with schizophrenia.  Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1998;  98 304-309
  • 68 Magliano L, Veltro F, Guarneri M, Marasco C. Clinical and socio-demographic correlates of coping strategies in relatives of schizophrenic patients.  Eur Psychiatry. 1995;  10 155-158
  • 69 Joyce J, Staples E, Maphosa M, Leese M, Wright S, Zin S. et al .Testing the stress-coping-model of caregiving in psychotic illness. In: European Network for Mental Health Service Evaluation (ENMESH). Universität Leipzig; 4th International Conference „Psychiatric Reform and Service Research in Europe” in Leipzig 2000, April 28 - 30
  • 70 Veltro F, Magliano L, Lobrace S, Morosini P L, Maj M. Burden on key relatives of patients with schizophrenia vs neurotic disorders: a pilot study.  Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1994;  29 66-70
  • 71 Perlick D, Clarkin J F, Sirey J, Raune P, Greenfield S, Struening E. et al . Burden experienced by care-givers of persons with bipolar affective disorders.  British Journal of Psychiatry. 1999;  175 56-62
  • 72 Mueser K T, Webb C, Pfeiffer M, Gladis M, Levinson D F. Family burden of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: perceptions of relatives and professionals.  Psychiatr Serv. 1996;  47 507-511
  • 73 Jenkins J H, Schumacher J G. Family burden of schizophrenia and depressive illness. Specifying the effects of ethnicity, gender and social ecology.  Br J Psychiatry. 1999;  174 31-38
  • 74 Targum S D, Dibble E D, Davenport Y B, Gershon E S. The Family Attitudes Questionnaire. Patients' and spouses' views of bipolar illness.  Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1981;  38 562-568
  • 75 Clement M. The characteristics of women who stay married to bipolar men.  J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 1996;  34 22-26
  • 76 Fadden G, Bebbington P, Kuipers L. Caring and its burdens. A study of the spouses of depressed patients.  Br J Psychiatry. 1987;  151 660-667
  • 77 Levkovitz V, Fennig S, Horesh N, Barak V, Treves I. Perception of ill spouse and dyadic relationship in couples with affective disorder and those without.  J Affect Disord. 2000;  58 237-240
  • 78 Keitner G I, Miller I W. Family functioning and major depression: an overview.  Am J Psychiatry. 1990;  147 1128-1137
  • 79 Miller I W, McDermut W, Gordon K C, Keitner G I, Ryan C E, Norman W. Personality and family functioning in families of depressed patients (In Process Citation).  J Abnorm Psychol. 2000;  109 539-545
  • 80 Badger T A. Family members' experiences living with members with depression.  West J Nurs Res. 1996;  18 149-171
  • 81 Karp D A, Watts-Roy D. Bearing responsibility: how caregivers to the mentally ill assess their obligations.  Health. 1999;  3 469-491
  • 82 Craske M G, Burton T, Barlow D H. Relationships among measures of communication, marital satisfaction and exposure during couples treatment of agoraphobia.  Behav Res Ther. 1989;  27 131-140
  • 83 Emmelkamp P M, van Dyck R, Bitter M, Heins R, Onstein E J, Eisen B. Spouse-aided therapy with agoraphobics.  Br J Psychiatry. 1992;  160 51-56
  • 84 Emmelkamp P M, de Lange I. Spouse involvement in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive patients.  Behav Res Ther. 1983;  21 341-346
  • 85 Hafner R J. Predicting the effects on husbands of behaviour therapy for wives' agoraphobia.  Behav Res Ther. 1984;  22 217-226
  • 86 Hafner R J. Anxiety disorders and family therapy.  A N Z J Fam Ther. 1992;  13 99-104
  • 87 Jacobson N S, Holtzworth-Munroe A, Schmaling K B. Marital therapy and spouse involvement in the treatment of depression, agoraphobia, and alcoholism.  J Consult Clin Psychol. 1989;  57 5-10
  • 88 Daiuto A D, Baucom D H, Epstein N, Dutton S S. The application of behavioral couples therapy to the assessment and treatment of agoraphobia: implications of empirical research.  Clin Psychol Rev. 1998;  18 663-687
  • 89 Hafner R J. Agoraphobic women married to abnormally jealous men.  Br J Med Psychol. 1979;  52 99-104
  • 90 Arrindell W A, Emmelkamp P M. Psychological profile of the spouse of the female agoraphobic patient. Personality and symptoms.  Br J Psychiatry. 1985;  146 405-414
  • 91 McLeod J D. Anxiety disorders and marital quality.  J Abnorm Psychol. 1994;  103 767-776
  • 92 Lange A, van Dyck R. The function of agoraphobia in the marital relationship.  Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1992;  85 89-93
  • 93 Eher R, Windhaber J, Rau R, Schmitt M, Keller E. Umgang mit Partnerkonflikten bei Panikpatienten, Alkoholikern und Gesunden.  Psychiat Prax. 2000;  27 189-194
  • 94 Pyke J, Roberts J. Social support and married agoraphobic women.  Can J Psychiatry. 1987;  32 100-104
  • 95 Buglass D, Clarke J, Henderson A S, Kreitman N. A study of agoraphobic housewives.  Psychol Med. 1977;  7 73-86
  • 96 Arrindell W A, Emmelkamp P M. Marital adjustment, intimacy and needs in female agoraphobics and their partners: a controlled study (published erratum appears in Br J Psychiatry 1987 Feb; 150: 273).  Br J Psychiatry. 1986;  149 592-602
  • 97 Quadrio C. Families of agoraphobic women.  Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1984;  18 164-170
  • 98 Calvocoressi L, Lewis B, Harris M, Trufan S J, Goodman W K, McDougle C J. et al . Family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  Am J Psychiatry. 1995;  152 441-443
  • 99 Emmelkamp P M, de Haan E, Hoogduin C A. Marital adjustment and obsessive-compulsive disorder.  Br J Psychiatry. 1990;  156 55-60
  • 100 Chakrabarti S, Kulhara P, Verma S K. The pattern of burden in families of neurotic patients.  Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1993;  28 172-177
  • 101 Methorst G J, Diekstra R F. Emotional distress among spouses of psychiatric outpatients in Holland.  Am J Psychother. 1987;  41 428-442
  • 102 Beckham J C, Lytle B L, Feldman M E. Caregiver burden in partners of Vietnam War veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.  J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996;  64 1068-1072
  • 103 Baker A M, Kevorkian N S. Differential effects of trauma on spouses of traumatized households.  J Trauma Stress. 1995;  8 61-74
  • 104 Angermeyer M C, Freigang C, Kilian B, Wittmund B. Gesundheitliche und ökonomische Belastungen von Angehörigen psychisch Kranker. Forschungsantrag an das Bundesministerium für Forschung und Technologie. Leipzig; Universität Leipzig 1998
  • 105 Spangenberg J J, Theron J C. Stress and coping strategies in spouses of depressed patients.  J Psychol. 1999;  133 253-262
  • 106 Widmer R B, Cadoret R J, North C S. Depression in family practice: some effects on spouses and children.  J Fam Pract. 1980;  10 45-51
  • 107 Dyck D G, Short R, Vitaliano P P. Predictors of burden and infectious illness in schizophrenia caregivers (see comments).  Psychosom Med. 1999;  61 411-419
  • 108 Gallagher S K, Mechanic D. Living with the mentally ill: effects on the health and functioning of other household members.  Soc Sci Med. 1996;  42 1691-1701
  • 109 Angermeyer M C, Matschinger H, Holzinger A. Die Belastung der Angehörigen chronisch psychisch Kranker.  Psychiat Prax. 1997;  24 215-220
  • 110 Angermeyer M C, Liebelt P, Matschinger H. Befindlichkeitsstörungen der Eltern von Patienten mit schizophrenen oder affektiven Störungen.  Psychother Psychosom med Psychol. 2000;  50 1-6
  • 111 Lam D H. Psychosocial family intervention in schizophrenia: a review of empirical studies.  Psychol Med. 1991;  21 423-441
  • 112 Simon M D. Wir melden uns zu Wort. Die Angehörigen von psychisch Kranken beziehen Position.  Psychiat Prax. 2000;  27 209-213
  • 113 Angermeyer M C. Zusammenhänge zwischen der familialen Umwelt und dem Verlauf psychischer Krankheit - ein Argument für die Gruppenarbeit mit Angehörigen. In: Angermeyer MC, Finzen A (Hrsg) Die Angehörigengruppe. Familien mit psychisch Kranken auf dem Weg zur Selbsthilfe. Stuttgart; Ferdinand Enke Verlag 1984: 79-100
  • 114 Dörner K. Handwerksregeln für Angehörigengruppen. In: Dörner K, Egetmeyer A, Koenning K (Hrsg) Freispruch der Familie. Wie Angehörige psychiatrischer Patienten sich in Gruppen von Not und Einsamkeit, von Schuld und Last freisprechen. Bonn; Psychiatrie-Verlag 1997: 59-98
  • 115 Kramer B, Simon M, Katschnig H. Die Beurteilung psychiatrischer Berufsgruppen durch die Angehörigen.  Psychiat Prax. 1996;  23 29-32
  • 116 Angermeyer M C, Diaz Ruiz de Zárate J, Matschinger H. Informations- und Unterstützungsbedarf von Angehörigen psychiatrischer Patienten.  Das Gesundheitswesen. 2000;  62 483-486
  • 117 Pott W. Die Angehörigengruppe bei schizophrenen Erkrankungen. Übersicht, eigene Konzeption und Erfahrungsbericht.  Psychiat Prax. 1996;  23 219-225
  • 118 Leavey G, Healy H, Brennan G. Providing information to carers of people admitted to psychiatric hospital (corrected and republished article originally printed in Ment Health Care 1998 Feb; 1: 196 - 8).  Ment Health Care. 1998;  1 260-262
  • 119 Klank I, Rost W D, Olbrich R. Angehörigenarbeit als Bestandteil der Routineversorgung schizophrener Patienten. Ein Erfahrungsbericht.  Psychiat Prax. 1998;  25 29-32
  • 120 Pollio D E, North C S, Foster D A. Content and curriculum in psychoeducation groups for families of persons with severe mental illness.  Psychiatr Serv. 1998;  49 816-822
  • 121 Bloch S, Szmukler G I, Herrman H, Benson A, Colussa S. Counseling caregivers of relatives with schizophrenia: themes, interventions, and caveats.  Fam Process. 1995;  34 413-425
  • 122 Clarkin J F, Carpenter D, Hull J, Wilner P, Glick I. Effects of psychoeducational intervention for married patients with bipolar disorder and their spouses.  Psychiatr Serv. 1998;  49 531-533
  • 123 Daley D C, Bowler K, Cahalane H. Approaches to patient and family education with affective disorders.  Patient Educ Couns. 1992;  19 163-174
  • 124 Nijdam S J. Guidance for the depressive patient's family. In: Kielholz P (ed) The general practitioner and his depressive patients. Bern, Stuttgart; Huber 1981
  • 125 Tompson M C, Rea M M, Goldstein M J, Miklowitz D J, Weisman A G. Difficulty in implementing a family intervention for bipolar disorder: the predictive role of patient and family attributes.  Fam Process. 2000;  39 105-120
  • 126 Jacob M, Frank E, Kupfer D J, Cornes C, Carpenter L L. A psychoeducational workshop for depressed patients, family, and friends: description and evaluation.  Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1987;  38 968-972
  • 127 Anderson C M, Griffin S, Rossi A, Pagonis I, Holder D P, Treiber R. A comparative study of the impact of education vs. process groups for families of patients with affective disorders.  Fam Process. 1986;  25 185-205
  • 128 Van Gent E M, Zwart F M. Psychoeducation of partners of bipolar-manic patients.  J Affect Disord. 1991;  21 15-18
  • 129 Loukissa D A. Family burden in chronic mental illness: a review of research studies.  J Adv Nurs. 1995;  21 248-255
  • 130 Bäuml J, Kissling B, Meurer C, Wais H, Lauter H. Informationszentrierte Angehörigengruppen zur Complianceverbesserung bei schizophrenen Patienten.  Psychiat Prax. 1991;  18 48-54
  • 131 Scherrmann T E, Seizer H U, Rutow R, Vieten C. Bewältigungsstrategien und Belastung von Angehörigen im Verlauf schizophrener Erkrankungen.  Psychiat Prax. 1992;  19 66-71
  • 132 Hatfield A B. Families of adults with severe mental illness: new directions in research.  Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1997;  67 254-260
  • 133 Klusmann D, Angermeyer M C. Persönliche Netzwerke bei psychotisch Erkrankten. Messung und Beschreibung. In: Angermeyer MC, Klusmann D (Hrsg) Soziales Netzwerk. Ein neues Konzept für die Psychiatrie. Berlin; Springer-Verlag 1989: 95-125
  • 134 Angermeyer M C, Zaumseil M. Verrückte Entwürfe. Kulturelle und individuelle Verarbeitung psychischen Krankseins. Das Narrenschiff. Bonn; Psychiatrie-Verlag 1997
  • 135 Richter T. Leben mit einem psychisch Kranken. Formen des Umgangs und der Bewältigung. Bonn; Psychiatrie-Verlag 1997
  • 136 Rose L E. Families of psychiatric patients: a critical review and future research directions.  Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 1996;  10 67-76
  • 137 Zaumseil M, Leferink K. Einleitung: Lebensalltag, Identität und soziale Beziehungen von psychisch Kranken in der Großstadt. In: Zaumseil M, Leferink K (Hrsg) Schizophrenie in der Moderne - Modernisierung in der Schizophrenie. Bonn; Psychiatrie-Verlag 1997: 6-26
  • 138 Haberfellner E M, Rittmannsberger H. Soziale Kontakte schizophrener Menschen - Integration oder extramurales Ghetto?. In: Katschnig H, König P (Hrsg) Schizophrenie und Lebensqualität. Wien; Springer-Verlag 1994: 178-188
  • 139 Johnson S L, Jacob T. Marital interactions of depressed men and women.  J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997;  65 15-23

Dipl.-Psych. Johannes Jungbauer

Universität Leipzig
Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie
Evaluationsforschung und Epidemiologie

Johannisallee 20

04317 Leipzig