Endoscopic Ultrasound for the Staging of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
24 June 2003 (online)
The purposes of cancer staging are to determine the optimal therapy and prognosis of a disease, and to allow uniformity in conducting clinical trials for different stages of disease. In the case of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most important determinants of optimal treatment and prognosis are the presence of cancer spread to the lymph nodes within the mediastinum, and to distant organs. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become a valuable tool for detection of mediastinal lymph nodes, and in some cases, distant organ metastases, because of its ready access to these sites through a transesophageal or transgastric approach. The ability to perform EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has greatly improved the accuracy and acceptance of EUS for lung cancer staging.
This paper outlines the basic principles of lung cancer staging, the methods for performing EUS-FNA in lung cancer, and suggests appropriate and inappropriate applications of EUS-FNA for lung cancer.
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M. B. Wallace, M. D., M. P. H.
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