Ernährung & Medizin 2004; 19(2): 69-72
DOI: 10.1055/s-2004-829492
Übersicht L-Carnitin

© Hippokrates Verlag in MVS Medizinverlage Stuttgart GmbH & Co. KG

L-Carnitin, Acetylcarnitin, Propionylcarnitin und ihre medizinische Bedeutung

L-Carnitine, acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine and their medical importanceHeinz Löster1
  • 1Institut für Laboratoriumsmedizin, Klinische Chemie und Molekulare Diagnostik Universität Leipzig
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
04 December 2006 (online)


L-Carnitin und seine kurzkettigen Ester Acetyl- und Propionyl-L-carnitin sind physiologische Substanzen mit großem pharmakologischem Potenzial. Sie können chemisch synthetisiert und so als Medikamente, vor allem bei metabolischen Störungen, eingesetzt werden. Es konnte jedoch ein positiver Einfluss von L-Carnitin und seinen Derivaten auf Erkrankungen in fast allen Gebieten der Medizin gefunden werden. Die wahrscheinlichste Ursache dafür ist die Wechselwirkung dieser Substanzen mit dem Coenzym A, wodurch der Acyl-CoA/CoA-Quotient verändert wird. Dadurch beeinflussen L-Carnitin und seine Derivate indirekt viele Körperfunktionen, obwohl die genauen Wirkungsmechanismen häufig noch unbekannt sind.


L-carnitine and its short-chain esters acetyl- and propionyl-L-carnitine are physiological substances of vast pharmacological potential. They can be synthesized chemically and therefore used as medicines, particularly for the treatment of metabolic disturbances.

Moreover, research has shown that this substance and its derivatives are able to produce favourable effects on illnesses in nearly all fields of medicine. The most probable explanation for this is their interaction with Coenzyme A, which influences the acyl-CoA/CoA ratio. Although the exact mechanisms are not yet completely known, this is probably the way in which carnitine and its derivatives indirectly influence a large number of functions of the body.


  • 1 Gulewitsch W, Krimberg R. Zur Kenntnis der Extraktionsstoffe der Muskeln. 2. Mitteilung über das Carnitin.  Hoppe-Seyler's Z Physiol Chem. 1905;  45 326-330
  • 2 Kutscher F. Über Liebigs Fleischextrakt. Mitteilung I.  Z Unters Nahr Genußm. 1905;  10 528-537
  • 3 Strack E, Wördehoff P, Neubauer E, Geissendörfer H. Über den Gehalt von Cholin, Acetylcholin und Carnitin im Muskel.  Hoppe-Seyler's Z Physiol Chem. 1935;  233 189-203
  • 4 Strack E, Woratz G, Rotzsch W. Wirkungen von Carnitin bei Überfunktion der Schilddrüse.  Endokrinologie. 1959;  38 218-225
  • 5 Arsenian MA. Carnitine and its derivatives in cardiovascular disease.  Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1997;  40 265-286
  • 6 Pepine CJ. The therapeutic potential of carnitine in cardiovascular disorders.  Clin Ther. 1991;  13 2-21
  • 7 Ferrari R, Cucchini F, Visioli O. The metabolical effects of L-carnitine in angina pectoris.  Int J Cardiol. 1984;  5 213-216
  • 8 Canale C, Terrachini V, Biagini A. et al. . Bicycle ergometer and echocardiographic study in healthy subjects and patients with angina pectoris after administration of L-carnitine: semiautomatic computerized analysis of M-mode tracing.  Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1988;  26 221-224
  • 9 Corr PB, Yamada KA. Selected metabolic alterations in the ischemic heart and their contributions to arrhythmogenesis.  Herz. 1995;  20 156-168
  • 10 Mondillo S, Faglia S, D'Aprile N. et al. . Therapy of arrhythmia induced by myocardial ischemia. Association of L-carnitine, propafenone and mexiletine.  Clin Ter. 1995;  146 769-774
  • 11 Singh RB, Niaz MA, Agarwal P. et al. . A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of L-carnitine in suspected acute myocardial infarction.  Postgrad Med J. 1996;  72 45-50
  • 12 Colonna P, Iliceto S. Myocardial infarction and left ventricular remodeling: results of the CEDIM trial. Carnitine Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata Infarto Miocardico.  Am Heart J. 2000;  139 124-130
  • 13 Kobayashi A, Masumura Y, Yamasaki N. L-carnitine treatment for congestive heart failure - experimental and clinical study.  Jpn Circ J. 1992;  56 86-94
  • 14 Loster H, Miehe K, Punzel M. et al. . Prolonged oral L-carnitine substitution increases bicycle ergometer performance in patients with severe, ischemically induced cardiac insufficiency.  Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1999;  13 537-546
  • 15 Paulson DJ. Carnitine deficiency-induced cardiomyopathy.  Mol Cell Biochem. 1998;  180 33-41
  • 16 Winter SC, Buist NR. Cardiomyopathy in childhood, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the role of L-carnitine.  Am Heart J. 2000;  139 63-69
  • 17 Guertl B, Noehammer C, Hoefler G. Metabolic cardiomyopathies.  Int J Exp Pathol. 2000;  81 349-372
  • 18 Ramos AC, Elias PR, Barrucand L, Da Silva JA. The protective effect of carnitine in human diphtheric myocarditis.  Pediatr Res. 1984;  18 815-819
  • 19 Ramos AC, Barrucand L, Elias PR. et al. . Carnitine supplementation in diphtheria.  Indian Pediatr. 1992;  29 1501-1505
  • 20 Foster KA, O`Rourke B, Reibel DK. Altered carnitine metabolism in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  Am J Physiol. 1985;  249 183-186
  • 21 Reibel DK, Uboh CE, Kent RL. Altered coenzyme A and carnitine metabolism in pressure-overload hypertrophied hearts.  Am J Physiol. 1983;  244 839-843
  • 22 Malone JI, Schocken DD, Morrison AD, Gilbert-Barness E. Diabetic cardiomyopathy and carnitine deficiency.  J Diabetes Complications. 1999;  13 86-90
  • 23 Keller VA, Toporoff B, Raziano RM, Pigott JD, Mills NL. Carnitine supplementation improves myocardial function in hearts from ischemic diabetic and euglycemic rats.  Ann Thorac Surg. 1998;  66 1600-1603
  • 24 Brevetti G, Di F Lisa, Perna S. et al. . Carnitine-related alterations in patients with intermittent claudication: indication for a focused carnitine therapy.  Circulation. 1996;  93 1685-1689
  • 25 Hiatt WR, Wolfel EE, Regensteiner JG, Brass EP. Skeletal muscle carnitine metabolism in patients with unilateral peripheral arterial disease.  J Appl Physiol. 1992;  73 346-353
  • 26 Plioplys AV, Plioplys S. Amantadine and L-carnitine treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.  Neuropsychobiology. 1997;  35 16-23
  • 27 Plioplys AV, Plioplys S. Serum levels of carnitine in chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical correlates.  Neuropsychobiology. 1995;  32 132-138
  • 28 Angelini C. Defects of fatty-acid oxidation in muscle.  Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990;  4 561-582
  • 29 Morris AA, Turnbull DM. Fatty acid oxidation defects in muscle.  Curr Opin Neurol. 1998;  11 485-490
  • 30 Martin A, Haller RG, Barohn R. Metabolic myopathies.  Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1994;  6 552-558
  • 31 Neumann G. Effect of L-carnitine on athletic performance. In: Seim H and Löster H (eds.): Carnitine - Pathobiochemical Basics and Clinical Applications. Bochum: Ponte Press 1996: 61-71
  • 32 Nuesch R, Rossetto M, Martina B. Plasma and urine carnitine concentrations in well-trained athletes at rest and after exercise. Influence of L-carnitine intake.  Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1999;  25 167-171
  • 33 Scarpini E, Doneda P, Pizzul S. et al. . L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine in human nerves from normal and diabetic subjects.  J Peripher Nerv Syst. 1996;  1 157-163
  • 34 Coulter DL. Carnitine deficiency in epilepsy: Risk factors and treatment.  J Child Neurol. 1995;  10 32-39
  • 35 Parnetti L. Clinical pharmacokinetics of drugs for Alzheimer's disease.  Clin Pharmacokinet. 1995;  29 110-129
  • 36 Tamamogullari N, Silig Y, Icagasioglu S, Atalay A. Carnitine deficiency in diabetes mellitus complications.  J Diabetes Complications. 1999;  13 251-253
  • 37 Coker M, Coker C, Darcan S. et al. . Carnitine metabolism in diabetes mellitus.  J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2002;  15 841-849
  • 38 Benvenga S, Ruggeri RM, Russo A. et al. . Usefulness of L-carnitine, a naturally occurring peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action, in iatrogenic hyperthyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;  86 3579-3594
  • 39 Galland S, Georges B, Le F Borgne. et al. . Thyroid hormone controls carnitine status through modifications of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase activity and gene expression.  Cell Mol Life Sci. 2002;  59 540-545
  • 40 Vitali G, Parente R, Melotti C. Carnitine supplementation in human idiopathic asthenospermia: clinical results.  Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1995;  21 157-159
  • 41 Vicari E, Calogero AE. Effects of treatment with carnitines in infertile patients with prostato-vesiculo-epididymitis.  Hum Reprod. 2001;  16 2338-2342
  • 42 Lombardo F, Gandini L, Agarwal A. et al. . A prospective double blind placebo controlled cross over trial of carnitine therapy in selected cases of male infertility.  Fertil Steril. 2002;  78 68
  • 43 Matalliotakis I, Koumantaki Y, Evageliou A. et al. . L-carnitine levels in the seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men: correlation with sperm quality.  Int J Fertil Womens Med. 2000;  45 236-240
  • 44 Reddi AS, Moquete M, Keshav G. et al. . Plasma carnitine levels in patients under going hemodialysis.  Nephron. 1998;  80 87-88
  • 45 Mantovani LG, Belisari A. L-carnitine use in hemodialyzed patients.  Am J Kidney Dis. 1999;  34 400-401
  • 46 Ahmad S. L-carnitine in dialysis patients.  Semin Dial. 2001;  14 209-217
  • 47 Kletzmayr J, Mayer G, Legenstein E. et al. . Anemia and carnitine supplementation in hemodialyzed patients.  Kidney Int Suppl. 1999;  69 93-106
  • 48 Cianciaruso B, Torraca S, De A Blasio, Fiorillo M, Marino R. Carnitine as adjuvant therapy in the management of renal anemia.  Contrib Nephrol. 2002;  137 426-430
  • 49 Krahenbuhl S. Carnitine metabolism in chronic liver disease.  Life Sci. 1996;  59 1579-1599
  • 50 Treem WR. New developments in the pathophysiology, clinical spectrum, and diagnosis of disorders of fatty acid oxidation.  Curr Opin Pediatr. 2000;  12 463-468
  • 51 Böhmer T. Drug-induced carnitine deficiency. In: Seim H and Löster H (eds.): Carnitine - Pathobiochemical Basics and Clinical Applications. Bochum: Ponte Press 1996: 167-176
  • 52 Coulter DL. Carnitine, valproate, and toxicity.  J Child Neurol. 1991;  6 7-14
  • 53 Cotariu D, Zaidman JL. Valproic acid and the liver.  Clin Chem. 1988;  34 890-897
  • 54 Amodio P, Angeli P, Merkel C, Menon F, Gatta A. Plasma carnitine levels in liver cirrhosis: relationship with nutritional status and liver damage.  J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1990;  28 619-626
  • 55 Selimoglu MA, Aydogdu S, Yagci RV, Huseyinov A. Plasma and liver carnitine status of children with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.  Pediatr Int. 2001;  43 391-395
  • 56 de la Pena C Alonso, Rozas I, Alvarez-Prechous A. et al. . Free carnitine and acylcarnitine levels in sera of alcoholics.  Biochem Med Metab Biol. 1990;  44 77-83
  • 57 Fuller RK, Hoppel CL. Plasma carnitine in alcoholism.  Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1988;  12 639-642
  • 58 Marzo A, Cardace G, Corbelletta C. et al. . Plasma concentration, urinary excretion and renal clearance of L-carnitine during pregnancy: a reversible secondary L-carnitine deficiency.  Gynecol Endocrinol. 1994;  8 115-120
  • 59 Schoderbeck M, Auer B, Legenstein E. et al. . Pregnancy-related changes of carnitine and acylcarnitine concentrations of plasma and erythrocytes.  J Perinat Med. 1995;  23 477-485
  • 60 Jinniate S, Schoderbeck M, Hellmich C. et al. . Carnitine level in the course of pregnancy and in umbilical cord blood.  Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch. 1993;  33 261
  • 61 Kimura RE, Warshaw JB. Metabolic adaptations of the fetus and newborn.  J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1983;  2 12-15
  • 62 Giovannini M, Agostoni C, Salari PC. Is carnitine essential in children?.  J Int Med Res. 1991;  19 88-102
  • 63 Winter SC, Linn LS, Helton E. Plasma carnitine concentrations in pregnancy, cord blood, and neonates and children.  Clin Chim Acta. 1995;  243 87-93
  • 64 Breningstall GN. Carnitine deficiency syndromes.  Pediatr Neurol. 1990;  6 75-81
  • 65 Melegh B. Carnitine supplementation in the premature.  Biol Neonate. 1990;  58 93-106
  • 66 Schmidt-Sommerfeld E, Penn D, Novak M, Wolf H. Carnitine in human perinatal fat metabolism.  J Perinat Med. 1985;  13 107-116
  • 67 Kurz C, Arbeiter K, Obermair A. et al. . L-carnitine-betamethasone combination therapy versus betamethasone therapy alone in prevention of respiratory distress syndrome.  Z Geburtshilfe Perinatol. 1993;  197 215-219
  • 68 Das DK, Ayromlooi J, Neogi A. Effect of ischemia on fatty acid metabolism in fetal lung.  Life Sci. 1983;  33 569-576
  • 69 Lehotay DC, Clarke JT. Organic acidurias and related abnormalities.  Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 1995;  32 377-429
  • 70 Nitzschner H, Liebsch F. Anwendung von Karnitin bei bindegewebigen Erkrankungen.  Derm Monatsschr. 1971;  157 538-542
  • 71 Uhlenbruck G. L-carnitine and the immune system: from the mode of metabolism to the modulation of membranes. In: Seim H and Löster H (eds.): Carnitine - Pathobiochemical Basics and Clinical Applications. Bochum: Ponte Press 1996: 47-60
  • 72 Famularo G, De C Simone, Cifone G. Carnitine stands on its own in HIV infection treatment.  Arch Intern Med. 1999;  159 1143-1144
  • 73 Richter V, Rassoul F, Würzberger G, Seim H. Hyperlipoproteinaemias and carnitine: animal experiments and clinical investigations. In: Seim H and Löster H (eds.): Carnitine - Pathobiochemical Basics and Clinical Applications. Bochum: Ponte Press 1996: 195-203
  • 74 Saudubray JM, Martin D, de P Lonlay. et al. . Recognition and management of fatty acid oxidation defects: a series of 107 patients.  J Inherit Metab Dis. 1999;  22 488-502
  • 75 Bremer J. The biochemistry of hypo- and hyperlipidemic fatty acid derivatives: metabolism and metabolic effects.  Prog Lipid Res. 2001;  40 231-268
  • 76 Rosadini G, Marenco S, Nobili F. et al. . Acute effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on regional and cerebral blood flow in patients with brain ischaemia.  Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1990;  10 123-128
  • 77 Calvani M, Arrigoni-Martelli E. Attenuation by acetyl-L-carnitine of neurological damage and biochemical derangement following brain ischemia and reperfusion.  Int J Tissue React. 1999;  21 1-6
  • 78 Sorbi S, Forleo P, Fani C, Piacentini S. Double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial with L-acetylcarnitine in patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxia.  Clin Neuropharmacol. 2000;  23 114-118
  • 79 Garzya G, Corallo D, Fiore A. et al. . Evaluation of the effects of L-acetylcarnitine on senile patients suffering from depression.  Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1990;  16 101-106
  • 80 Pettegrew JW, Levine J, McClure RJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer s disease and geriatric depression.  Mol Psychiatry. 2000;  5 616-632
  • 81 Pettegrew JW, Levine J, Gershon S. et al. . 31P-MRS study of acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in geriatric depression: preliminary results.  Bipolar Disord. 2002;  4 61-66
  • 82 Tempesta E, Casella L, Pirrongelli C. et al. . L-acetylcarnitine in depressed elderly subjects. A cross-over study vs placebo.  Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1987;  13 417-423
  • 83 Gecele M, Francesetti G, Meluzzi A. Acetyl-L-carnitine in aged subjects with major depression: clinical efficacy and effects on the circadian rhythm of cortisol.  Dementia. 1991;  2 333-337
  • 84 Spagnoli A, Lucca U, Menasce G. et al. . Long-term acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in Alzheimer's disease.  Neurology. 1991;  41 1726-1732
  • 85 Brooks 3rd JO, Yesavage JA, Carta A, Bravi D. Acetyl L-carnitine slows decline in younger patients with Alzheimer's disease: a reanalysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study using the trilinear approach.  Int Psychogeriatr. 1998;  10 193-203
  • 86 Parnetti L, Gaiti A, Mecocci P. et al. . Pharmacokinetics of i.v. and oral acetyl-L-carnitine in a multiple dose regimen in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type.  Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;  42 89-93
  • 87 Sano M, Bell K, Cote L. et al. . Double-blind parallel design pilot study of acetyl levocarnitine in patients with Alzheimer's disease.  Arch Neurol. 1992;  49 1137-1141
  • 88 Rai G, Wright G, Scott L. et al. . Double-blind, placebo controlled study of acetyl-l-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's dementia.  Curr Med Res Opin. 1990;  11 638-647
  • 89 Van Oudheusden L, Scholte H. Efficacy of carnitine in the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002;  67 33-38
  • 90 Bonavita E. Study of the efficacy and tolerability of L-acetylcarnitine therapy in the senile brain.  Int J Clin Pharm Ther Toxicol. 1986;  24 511-516
  • 91 Onofrj M, Fulgente T, Melchionda D. et al. . L-acetylcarnitine as a new therapeutic approach for peripheral neuropathies with pain.  Int J Clin Pharm Res. 1995;  15 9-15
  • 92 Giancaterini A, De A Gaetano, Mingrone G. et al. . Acetyl-L-carnitine infusion increases glucose disposal in type 2 diabetic patients.  Metabolism. 2000;  49 704-708
  • 93 Lowitt S, Malone JI, Salem AF. et al. . Acetyl-L-carnitine corrects the altered peripheral nerve function of experimental diabetes.  Metabolism. 1995;  44 677-680
  • 94 Fedele D, Giugliano D. Peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Current recommendations and future prospects for its prevention and management.  Drugs. 1997;  54 414-421
  • 95 Ido Y, McHowat J, Chang KC. et al. . Neural dysfunction and metabolic imbalances in diabetic rats. Prevention by acetyl-L-carnitine.  Diabetes. 1994;  43 1469-1477
  • 96 Biagiotti G, Cavallini G. Acetyl-L-carnitine vs tamoxifen in the oral therapy of Peyronie's disease: a preliminary report.  BJU Int. 2001;  88 63-67
  • 97 Cha YS, Sachan DS. Acetylcarnitine-mediated inhibition of ethanol oxidation in hepatocytes.  Alcohol. 1995;  12 289-294
  • 98 Sachan DS, Cha YS. Acetylcarnitine inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase.  Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;  203 1496-1501
  • 99 Tempesta E, Troncon R, Janiri L. et al. . Role of acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of cognitive deficit in chronic alcoholism.  Int J Clin Pharm Res. 1990;  10 101-107
  • 100 Niang M, Melka M. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on leukemia L1210 resistant to mitoxantrone.  Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2000;  43 125-128
  • 101 Scarpini E, Sacilotto G, Baron P, Cusini M, Scarlato G. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of painful peripheral neuropathies in HIV+ patients.  J Peripher Nerv Syst. 1997;  2 250-252
  • 102 Famularo G, De Simone C. Treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine has the potential to improve the clinical course of painful peripheral neuropathies in HIV-positives patients.  J Peripher Nerv Syst. 1998;  3 227-229
  • 103 Di Marzio L, Moretti S, D'Alo S. et al. . Acetyl-L-carnitine administration increases insulin-like growth factor 1 levels in asymptomatic HIV-1-infected subjects: correlation with its suppressive effect on lymphocyte apoptosis and ceramide generation.  Clin Immunol. 1999;  92 103-110
  • 104 Rao KV, Qureshi IA. Reduction in the MK-801 binding sites of the NMDA sub-type of glutamate receptor in a mouse model of congenital hyperammonemia: prevention by acetyl-L-carnitine.  Neuropharmacology. 1999;  38 383-394
  • 105 Paulson DJ, Schmidt MJ, Romens J, Shug AL. Metabolic and physiological differences between zero-flow and low-flow myocardial ischemia: effects of L-acetylcarnitine.  Basic Res Cardiol. 1984;  79 551-561
  • 106 Shug AL, Hayes B, Huth PJ. et al. .Changes in carnitine-linked metabolism during ischemia, thermal injury and shock. In: Frenkel RA, Mc Garry JD (eds.): Carnitine Biosynthesis, Metabolism and Functions. New York: Academic Press 1980: 321-340
  • 107 Shug AL. Protection from adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats.  Z Kardiol. 1987;  76 46-52
  • 108 Ido Y, Mc J Howatt, Chang KC. et al. . Neural dysfunction and metabolic imbalances in diabetic rats. Prevention by acetyl-L-carnitine.  Diabetes. 1994;  43 1469-1477
  • 109 Sugiyama S, Miyazaki Y, Kotaka K, Ozawa T. On the mechanism of ischemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.  Jpn Circ J. 1982;  46 296-302
  • 110 Anand I, Chandrashekhan Y, De Giuli F. et al. . Acute and chronic effects of propionyl-L-carnitine on the hemodynamics, exercise capacity, and hormones in patients with congestive heart failure.  Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1998;  12 291-299
  • 111 Caponnetto S, Canale C, Masperone MA. et al. . Efficacy of L-propionylcarnitine treatment in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.  Eur Heart J. 1994;  15 1267-1273
  • 112 Sayed-Ahmed MM, Salman TM, Gaballah HE. et al. . Propionyl-L-carnitine as protector against adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy.  Pharmacol Res. 2001;  43 513-520
  • 113 El Alaoui-Talibi Z, Guendouz A, Moravec M, Moravec J. Control of oxidative metabolism in volume-overloaded rat hearts: effect of propionyl-L-carnitine.  Am J Physiol. 1997;  272 1615-1624
  • 114 Schonekess BO, Allard MF, Lopaschuk GD. Propionyl L-carnitine improvement of hypertrophied heart function is accompanied by an increase in carbohydrate oxidation.  Circ Res. 1995;  77 726-734
  • 115 Bartels GL, Remme WJ, den FR Hartog. et al. . Additional antiischemic effects of long-term L-propionylcarnitine in anginal patients treated with conventional antianginal therapy.  Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1995;  9 749-753
  • 116 Broderick TL, Driedzic W, Paulson DJ. Propionyl-L-carnitine effects on postischemic recovery of heart function and substrate oxidation in the diabetic rat.  Mol Cell Biochem. 2000;  206 151-157
  • 117 Broderick TL, Haloftis G, Paulson DJ. L-propionylcarnitine enhancement of substrate oxidation and mitochondrial respiration in the diabetic rat heart.  J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1996;  28 331-340
  • 118 Spagnoli LG, Orlandi A, Marino B. et al. . Propionyl-L-carnitine prevents the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in aged hyperlipemic rabbits.  Atherosclerosis. 1995;  114 29-44
  • 119 Triggiani M, Oriente A, Golino P. et al. . Inhibition of platelet-activating factor synthesis in human neutrophils and platelets by propionyl-L-carnitine.  Biochem Pharmacol. 1999;  58 1341-1348
  • 120 Mister M, Noris M, Szymczuk J. et al. . Propionyl-L-carnitine prevents renal function deterioration due to ischemia/reperfusion.  Kidney Int. 2002;  61 1064-1078
  • 121 Thompson CH, Irish AB, Kemp GJ. et al. . The effect of propionyl-L-carnitine on skeletal muscle metabolism in renal failure.  Clin Nephrol. 1997;  47 372-378
  • 122 Longoni B, Giovannini L, Migliori M. et al. . Cyclosporine-induced lipid peroxidation and propionyl carnitine protective effect.  Int J Tissue React. 1999;  21 7-11
  • 123 Giovannini L, Migliori M, De Pietro S. et al. . L-propionyl carnitine reduces toxicity correlated to cyclosporine-induced intracellular ATP concentrations.  Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1999;  25 173-177
  • 124 Hiatt WR, Regensteiner JG, Creager MA. et al. . Propionyl-L-carnitine improves exercise performance and functional status in patients with claudication.  Am J Med. 2001;  110 616-622
  • 125 Brevetti G, Diehm C, Lambert D. European multicenter study on propionyl-L-carnitine in intermittent claudication.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;  34 1618-1624
  • 126 Dal Lago A, De Martini D, Flore R. et al. . Effects of propionyl-L-carnitine on peripheral arterial obliterative disease of the lower limbs: a double-blind clinical trial.  Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1999;  25 29-36
  • 127 Deckert J. Propionyl-L-carnitine for intermittent claudication.  J Fam Pract. 1997;  44 533-534
  • 128 Brevetti G, Perna S, Sabba C. et al. . Propionyl-L-carnitine in intermittent claudication: double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose titration, multicenter study.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;  26 1411-1416
  • 129 Sabba C, Berardi E, Antonica G. et al. . Comparison between the effect of L-propionylcarnitine, L-acetylcarnitine and nitroglycerin in chronic peripheral arterial disease: a haemodynamic double blind echo-Doppler study.  Eur Heart J. 1994;  15 1348-1352
  • 130 Ferrari R, Ceconi C, Cargnoni A. et al. . The effect of propionyl-L-carnitine on the ischemic and reperfused intact myocardium and on their derived mitochondria.  Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1991;  5 57-65
  • 131 Siliprandi N, Di Lisa F, Pivetta A. et al. . Transport and function of L-carnitine and L-propionylcarnitine: relevance to some cardiomyopathies and cardiac ischemia.  Z Kardiol. 1987;  76 34-40
  • 132 Ferrari R, Ceconi C, Curello S. et al. . Protective effect of propionyl-L-carnitine against ischemia and reperfusion-damage.  Mol Cell Biochem. 1989;  88 161-168
  • 133 Molaparast-Saless F, Nellis SH, Liedtke AJ. The effects of propionylcarnitine taurine on cardiac performance in aerobic and ischemic myocardium.  J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1988;  20 63-74
  • 134 Paulson DJ, Traxler J, Schmidt M. et al. . Protection of the ischaemic myocardium by L-propionylcarnitine: effects on the recovery of cardiac output after ischemia and reperfusion, carnitine transport, and fatty acid oxidation.  Cardiovasc Res. 1986;  20 536-541
  • 135 Loster H, Punzel M. Effects of L-carnitine on mechanical recovery of isolated hearts in relation to the perfusion with glucose and palmitate.  Mol Cell Biochem. 1998;  185 65-75
  • 136 Leipala JA, Bhatnagar R, Pineda E. et al. . Protection of the reperfused heart by L-propionylcarnitine.  J Appl Physiol. 1991;  71 1518-1522
  • 137 Loster H, Keller T, Grommisch J, Grunder W. Effects of L-carnitine and its acetyl and propionyl esters on ATP and PCr levels of isolated rat hearts perfused without fatty acids and investigated by means of 31P-NMR spectroscopy.  Mol Cell Biochem. 1999;  200 93-102
  • 138 Subramanian R, Plehn S, Noonan J. et al. . Free radical-mediated damage during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion and protection by carnitine esters.  Z Kardiol. 1987;  76 41-45
  • 139 Vanella A, Russo A, Acquaviva R. et al. . L-propionyl-carnitine as superoxide scavenger, antioxidant, and DNA cleavage protector.  Cell Biol Toxicol. 2000;  16 99-104
  • 140 Loster H, Bohm U. L-carnitine reduces malondialdehyde concentrations in isolated rat hearts in dependence on perfusion conditions.  Mol Cell Biochem. 2001;  217 83-90
  • 141 Di Lisa F, Menabo R, Siliprandi N. L-propionyl-carnitine protection of mitochondria in ischemic rat hearts.  Mol Cell Biochem. 1989;  88 169-173
  • 142 Di Lisa F, Menabo R, Barbato R, Siliprandi N. Contrasting effects of propionate and propionyl-L-carnitine on energy-linked processes in ischemic hearts.  Am J Physiol. 1994;  267 455-461
  • 143 Siliprandi N, Di F Lisa, Pivetta A. et al. . Transport and function of L-carnitine and L-propionylcarnitine: relevance to some cardiomyopathies and cardiac ischemia.  Z Kardiol. 1987;  76 34-40
  • 144 Siliprandi N, Di Lisa F, Menabo R. Propionyl-L-carnitine: biochemical significance and possible role in cardiac metabolism.  Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1991;  5 11-15
  • 145 Liedtke AJ, De Maison L, Nellis SH. Effects of L-propionylcarnitine on mechanical recovery during reflow in intact hearts.  Am J Physiol. 1988;  255 169-176
  • 146 Paulson DJ, Shug AL, Zhao J. Protection of the ischemic diabetic heart by L-propionylcarnitine therapy.  Mol Cell Biochem. 1992;  116 131-137
  • 147 Broderick TL, Driedzic W, Paulson DJ. Propionyl-L-carnitine effects on postischemic recovery of heart function and substrate oxidation in the diabetic rat.  Mol Cell Biochem. 2000;  206 151-157
  • 148 Chiddo A, Gaglione A, Musci S. et al. . Hemodynamic study of intravenous propionyl-L-carnitine in patients with ischemic heart disease and normal left ventricular function.  Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1991;  5 107-111
  • 149 Cherchi A, Lai C, Onnis E. et al. . Propionyl carnitine in stable effort angina.  Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1990;  4 481-486
  • 150 Lagioia R, Scrutinio D, Mangini SG. et al. . Propionyl-L-carnitine: a new compound in the metabolic approach to the treatment of effort angina.  Int J Cardiol. 1992;  34 167-172
  • 151 Bartels GL, Remme WJ, den Hartog FR. et al. . Additional antiischemic effects of long-term L-propionylcarnitine in anginal patients treated with conventional antianginal therapy.  Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1995;  9 749-753
  • 152 Bartels GL, Remme WJ, Pillay M. et al. . Effects of L-propionylcarnitine on ischemia-induced myocardial dysfunction in men with angina pectoris.  Am J Cardiol. 1994;  15 125-130
  • 153 Bartels GL, Remme WJ, Holwerda KJ, Kruijssen DA. Anti-ischaemic efficacy of L-propionylcarnitine - a promising novel metabolic approach to ischaemia?.  Eur Heart J. 1996;  17 414-420
  • 154 Brevetti G, Fanin M, De Amicis V. et al. . Changes in skeletal muscle histology and metabolism in patients undergoing exercise deconditioning: effect of propionyl-L-carnitine.  Muscle Nerve. 1997;  20 1115-1120

Priv.-Doz. Dr. Heinz Löster

Institut für Laboratoriumsmedizin, Klinische Chemie und Molekulare Diagnostik Universität Leipzig

Liebigstraße 27

04103 Leipzig