23 January 2006 (online)
EUS in Numbers
A computer search on the PubMed database, followed by manual verification of the records retrieved, identified a total of 235 papers on the topic of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) published in English from July 2004 to June 2005 (electronic publications ahead of print are not included). Many papers were also published on transbronchial, laparoscopic, mediastinoscopic, and transrectal (rigid probe) ultrasound, but these are not covered in this review.
It is reassuring to note (Figure [1 a]) that original articles represented the largest proportion of the research output on EUS (100 papers, 42.5 %); unfortunately, none of these were reports of randomized trials. Original research papers clearly outnumbered other types of publication: case reports, small case series, and letters (82 papers, 35 %), as well as reviews and editorials (53 papers, 22.5 %). The relatively high number of reviews is partly due to the January 2005 issue of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America, which provided an extensive and up-to-date coverage of the field in the form of 15 tutorials.
Four major research areas are evident from the topics of the 100 original EUS papers (Figure [1 b]):
Pancreaticobiliary tumors or masses (31 papers, 31 %) Gastroesophageal cancer (15 papers, 15 %) EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of mediastinal lymph nodes (15 papers, 15 %) Benign pancreaticobiliary disease (nine papers, 9 %)
It is significant that almost half of the papers (46 %) dealt with various applications of EUS-FNA.
Among the many journals publishing studies on EUS, three titles clearly stand out due to the high number of original papers published - Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Endoscopy, and the American Journal of Gastroenterology, with 27, 13, and nine papers, respectively (Figure [1 c]). Notably, as many as 13 % of the original papers appeared in thoracic surgery or respiratory journals, reflecting the increasing role that EUS is playing in the management of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Figure 1 Papers on endoscopic ultrasonography published in English from July 2004 to June 2005. a A total of 235 papers broken down by publication type. b A total of 100 original papers broken down by topic. c A total of 100 original papers broken down by publishing journal.
- 1 Wallace M B, Block M I, Gillanders W. et al . Accurate molecular detection of non-small cell lung cancer metastases in mediastinal lymph nodes sampled by endoscopic ultrasound-guided needle aspiration. Chest. 2005; 127 430-437
- 2 Xi L, Luketich J D, Raja S. et al . Molecular staging of lymph nodes from patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11 1099-1109
- 3 Wang X T, Sienel W, Eggeling S. et al . Detection of disseminated tumor cells in mediastinoscopic lymph node biopsies and lymphadenectomy specimens of patients with NSCLC by quantitative RT-PCR. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005; 28 26-32
- 4 Gillanders W E, Mikhitarian K, Hebert R. et al . Molecular detection of micrometastatic breast cancer in histopathology-negative axillary lymph nodes correlates with traditional predictors of prognosis: an interim analysis of a prospective multi-institutional cohort study. Ann Surg. 2004; 239 828-837
- 5 Takahashi K, Yamao K, Okubo K. et al . Differential diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and focal pancreatitis by using EUS-guided FNA. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005; 61 76-79
- 6 Kitoh H, Ryozawa S, Harada T. et al . Comparative genomic hybridization analysis for pancreatic cancer specimens obtained by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration. J Gastroenterol. 2005; 40 511-517
- 7 Bhutani M S. Endoscopic ultrasonography: new developments and interesting trends. Endoscopy. 2004; 36 950-956
- 8 DeWitt J, Devereaux B, Chriswell M. et al . Comparison of endoscopic ultrasonography and multidetector computed tomography for detecting and staging pancreatic cancer. Ann Intern Med. 2004; 141 753-763
- 9 Levy M J, Wiersema M J. Pancreatic neoplasms. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2005; 15 117-142
- 10 Aslanian H, Salem R, Lee J. et al . EUS diagnosis of vascular invasion in pancreatic cancer: surgical and histologic correlates. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; 100 1381-1385
- 11 Volmar K E, Vollmer R T, Jowell P S. et al . Pancreatic FNA in 1000 cases: a comparison of imaging modalities. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005; 61 854-861
- 12 Jhala N C, Jhala D, Eltoum I. et al . Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy: a powerful tool to obtain samples from small lesions. Cancer. 2004; 102 239-246
- 13 Shah J N, Ahmad N A, Beilstein M C. et al . Clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasonography on the management of malignancies. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 2 1069-1073
- 14 Harewood G C. Assessment of publication bias in the reporting of EUS performance in staging rectal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; 100 808-816
- 15 Polkowski M, Palucki J, Wronska E. et al . Endosonography versus helical computed tomography for locoregional staging of gastric cancer. Endoscopy. 2004; 36 617-623
- 16 Zuccaro G Jr, Rice T W, Vargo J J. et al . Endoscopic ultrasound errors in esophageal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; 100 601-606
- 17 Palazzo L, O’Toole D. Biliary stones: including acute biliary pancreatitis. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2005; 15 63-82
- 18 Moon J H, Cho Y D, Cha S W. et al . The detection of bile duct stones in suspected biliary pancreatitis: comparison of MRCP, ERCP, and intraductal US. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; 100 1051-1057
- 19 Seifert H, Wehrmann T, Hilgers R. et al . Catheter probe extraductal EUS reliably detects distal common bile duct abnormalities. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004; 60 61-67
- 20 Rajan E, Clain J E, Levy M J. et al . Age-related changes in the pancreas identified by EUS: a prospective evaluation. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005; 61 401-406
M. Polkowski, M. D.
Dept. of Gastroenterology · Medical Center for Postgraduate Education · Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology
Roentgena 5 · 02-781 Warsaw · Poland