Semin Reprod Med 1999; 17(4): 359-370
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-1016245
Copyright © 1999 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Endocrine Cancer Risks for Women During the Perimenopause and Beyond

Kimberly K. Leslie* , Nirmala S. Kumar*,
  • *Division of Basic Reproductive Science, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and
  • †Division of Medical Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, The University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado.
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
15 March 2008 (online)


Cancer and its link to reproductive hormones is an area of intense concern for our patients and has been the subject of much speculation. But if estrogen causes breast cancer, for example, most women would eventually develop the disease. We know this is not the case! Actually, estrogen and progesterone have been linked to a decrease as well as an increase in cancer, depending upon the type of tumor under investigation. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the data supporting those relationships.