Endoscopy 2021; 53(04): E132-E133
DOI: 10.1055/a-1216-0271
E-Videos

Closure of residual fistula after esophageal atresia repair in a 5-year-old using endoscopic submucosal dissection of surrounding mucosa

Grégoire Lavaud
1  Department of Pediatric Endoscopy and Gastroenterology, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Lyon, France
2  Department of Endoscopy and Gastroenterology, Pavillon L, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France
,
Sophie Heissat
1  Department of Pediatric Endoscopy and Gastroenterology, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Lyon, France
,
Auxane Chauveau
2  Department of Endoscopy and Gastroenterology, Pavillon L, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France
,
Noël Peretti
1  Department of Pediatric Endoscopy and Gastroenterology, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Lyon, France
,
Alain Lachaux
1  Department of Pediatric Endoscopy and Gastroenterology, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Lyon, France
,
Borathchakra Oung
2  Department of Endoscopy and Gastroenterology, Pavillon L, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France
,
Mathieu Pioche
2  Department of Endoscopy and Gastroenterology, Pavillon L, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France
3  INSERM U1032, LabTau, Lyon, France
› Author Affiliations
 

Esotracheal fistulas after esophageal atresia repair recur in 5 to 10 % of cases [1] [2] and lead to recurrent pneumonia or mediastinitis. Several surgical techniques are effective in closing an esotracheal fistula by thoracotomy or cervicotomy [3], but endoscopic success has never been published for this indication.

We present the case of a 5-year-old patient with a previous history of type III esophageal atresia neonatal surgery, chronic respiratory congestion, and poor weight gain. She experienced a fistula recurrence with a large tracheoesophageal defect ([Fig. 1]).

Zoom Image
Fig. 1 First endoscopic submucosal dissection to remove mucosa surrounding the fistula. a Appearance of the residual tracheoesophageal fistula (red arrow showing the fistula). b, c Deep dissection of the entire fistulous tract using a clip-and-line system. d Clips placed in the submucosa to close the orifice.

We performed an endoscopic fistula closure after prior endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of the surrounding mucosa as previously reported for a button battery-induced esotracheal fistula [4] or idiopathic chronic fistula [5]. The patient underwent tracheal intubation with balloon placement just under the fistula. ESD was assisted by clip-and-line traction to dissect deeper into the fistula tract ([Video 1]). Once the mucosa was resected, we closed the area using four clips anchored in the submucosa. A radiological check objectified the tightness of the closure.

Video 1 Successful endoscopic closure of a residual fistula after esophageal atresia repair in a 5-year-old using endoscopic submucosal dissection of the surrounding mucosa.


Quality:

The postoperative consequences were favorable, marked by a disappearance of the patient's respiratory symptoms during the following 3 months. A radiological check with opacification carried out 3 months before the gesture shows a tiny residual fistula and pseudo-diverticular scarring ([Fig. 2]). The patient underwent a second procedure, during which ESD of the surrounding mucosa was done with deep cutting of the diverticular wall. Then, a new closure of the resected area was done. The closure of the residual fistula was confirmed by radiological control after 1 month.

Zoom Image
Fig. 2 Aspect of esophageal transit before and after the second procedure. a Radiological opacification after first endoscopic closure: small residual fistula and pseudo-diverticular scarring (red arrow showing the fistula). b Radiological opacification after second endoscopic gesture: no residual fistula.

Currently, the management of recurrent esotracheal fistulas after atresia surgery is not well defined. Endoscopic closure after ESD of the surrounding mucosa could allow a definitive resolution of the esotracheal fistulas and avoid a second risky surgery.

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Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Corresponding author

Dr. Mathieu Pioche
Endoscopy Unit – Digestive Disease Department
Pavillon L – Edouard Herriot Hospital
69437 Lyon Cedex
France   
Fax: +33-472-110-147   

Publication History

Publication Date:
05 August 2020 (online)

© 2020. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany


Zoom Image
Fig. 1 First endoscopic submucosal dissection to remove mucosa surrounding the fistula. a Appearance of the residual tracheoesophageal fistula (red arrow showing the fistula). b, c Deep dissection of the entire fistulous tract using a clip-and-line system. d Clips placed in the submucosa to close the orifice.
Zoom Image
Fig. 2 Aspect of esophageal transit before and after the second procedure. a Radiological opacification after first endoscopic closure: small residual fistula and pseudo-diverticular scarring (red arrow showing the fistula). b Radiological opacification after second endoscopic gesture: no residual fistula.