CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Planta Medica International Open 2020; 07(03): e122-e132
DOI: 10.1055/a-1219-2207
Original Papers

GC-MS Analysis, Bioactivity-based Molecular Networking and Antiparasitic Potential of the Antarctic Alga Desmarestia antarctica

1  Department of Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
,
Karen Cristina Rangel
2  Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
,
1  Department of Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
,
Lorena Rigo Gaspar
2  Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
,
Péricles Gama Abreu-Filho
3  Department of Clinical Analysis, Toxicology and Food Science, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
,
Luíz Miguel Pereira
3  Department of Clinical Analysis, Toxicology and Food Science, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
,
Ana Patrícia Yatsuda
3  Department of Clinical Analysis, Toxicology and Food Science, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
,
Marília Elias Gallon
1  Department of Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
,
Leonardo Gobbo-Neto
1  Department of Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
,
Leandro da Costa Clementino
5  Institute of Chemistry, State University Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Araraquara, SP, Brazil
,
Márcia Aparecida Silva Graminha
4  Department of Clinical Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of São Paulo State University Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Araraquara, SP, Brazil
,
Laís Garcia Jordão
6  Technology and Innovation Department, National Institute of Amazon Research, Manaus, AM, Brazil
,
Adrian Martin Pohlit
6  Technology and Innovation Department, National Institute of Amazon Research, Manaus, AM, Brazil
,
Pio Colepicolo-Neto
7  Chemistry Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
,
Hosana Maria Debonsi
1  Department of Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
› Author Affiliations
Funding: This study had financial and logistic support from the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR/MCT/CNPq N°64/2013), Brazilian Marine Force, National Institute of Science and Technology (INCT: BioNat), Grant # 465637/2014–0, and the State of São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), Grant # 2014/50926–0 and Grant # 2017/03552–5. The authors are thankful to the University of São Paulo for providing access to necessary resources, the financial and fellowship support from the Brazilian research funding agencies Coordination of Improvement of Higher-Level Personnel (CAPES), and the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for the scholarship provided, Grant #1408011/2018–4. The department of Biomolecular Sciences and the Núcleo de Pesquisas em Produtos Naturais e Sintéticos – NPPNS are acknowledged.
  

Abstract

Leishmaniasis, malaria, and neosporosis are parasitic diseases that affect humans and animals, causing public health problems and billions in economic losses. Despite the advances in the development of new drugs, the severe side effects of available leishmaniasis treatments, the Plasmodium spp. resistance to antimalarial drugs, and the lack of a specific treatment against neosporosis lead us to the search for new anti-protozoan molecules from underexplored sources such as the Antarctic marine environment. Herein, we describe for the first time the chemical profile of Desmarestia antarctica crude extract and fractions using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS (molecular networking) approaches, and evaluate their antiparasitic activity against Leishmania amazonensis, Neospora caninum, and multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity in 3T3 BALB/c fibroblasts and Vero cells was evaluated. D. antarctica fraction E ( IC50 of 53.8±4.4 μg mL− 1 and selectivity index of 3.3) exhibited anti-promastigote activity and was fourfold more selective to L. amazonensis rather than to the host cells. D. antarctica fraction D (IC50 of 1.6±1.3 μg mL− 1 and selectivity index of 27.8), D. antarctica fraction F (IC50 of 3.1±2.1 μg mL− 1 and selectivity index of 23.1), and D. antarctica fraction H (IC50 of 3.1±2.0 μg mL− 1 and selectivity index of 12.9) presented the highest antiparasitic effects against N. caninum with no cytotoxic effects. Also, D. antarctica fraction D presented a significant antiplasmodial inhibitory effect (IC50 of 19.1±3.9 μg mL− 1 and selectivity index of 6.0). GC-MS analysis indicated palmitic acid, myristic acid, fucosterol, phthalic acid, di(2-methylbutyl) ester, loliolide, and neophytadiene as the main components in the active fractions. In addition, this is the first report of a biological screening of macroalgae secondary metabolites against N. caninum parasites.

Supporting Information



Publication History

Received: 06 May 2020
Received: 20 June 2020

Accepted: 13 July 2020

Publication Date:
21 August 2020 (online)

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