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The Association between Early Gram-Negative Bacteria in Tracheal Aspirate Cultures and Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia among Extremely Preterm Infants Requiring Prolonged VentilationFunding None.
Objective The study aimed to evaluate the association between bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) development at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) and Gram-negative bacteria in tracheal aspirate cultures among extremely preterm infants.
Study Design This study has a retrospective cohort. Patients were 155 infants aged less than or equal to 26 gestational weeks who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Osaka Women's and Children's Hospital from 2009 to 2018. Primary outcome was respiratory outcomes expressed as BPD development.
Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify neonatal and bacterial factors associated with BPD.
Results After adjusting for gestational age, birth weight, sex, chorioamnionitis, Gram-positive cocci (GPC) and Gram-negative rods (GNRs) in tracheal aspirate cultures within 28 days after birth, GNRs were significantly associated with BPD development (odds ratio [OR]: 3.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68–8.94). In contrast, GPCs were not associated with BPD development (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.05–1.61).
Conclusion Gram-negative bacteria in tracheal cultures within 28 days of birth are associated with BPD development in infants aged less than or equal to 26 gestational weeks.
BPD is a factor for morbidity in extremely preterm infants.
Respiratory infection is an adverse outcome of BPD.
GNRs in tracheal cultures soon after birth disturb BPD development.
GPC was not associated with BPD development.
Received: 22 November 2020
Accepted: 05 August 2021
06 August 2021 (online)
© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
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