Am J Perinatol
DOI: 10.1055/a-1674-6198
SMFM Fellows Research Series

Antenatal Corticosteroids Decrease the Risk of Composite Neonatal Respiratory Morbidity in Planned Early Term Cesarean Deliveries

Chelsea A. DeBolt
1  Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Mount Sinai Health System and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
,
Shaelyn Johnson
1  Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Mount Sinai Health System and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
,
Krupa Harishankar
1  Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Mount Sinai Health System and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
,
Johanna Monro
1  Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Mount Sinai Health System and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
,
Elianna Kaplowitz
2  Department of Population Health Science and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
,
Angela Bianco
1  Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Mount Sinai Health System and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
,
Joanne Stone
1  Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Mount Sinai Health System and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.

Abstract

Objective While administration of antenatal corticosteroids prior to term elective cesarean deliveries has been shown in international randomized controlled trials to decrease the rates of respiratory distress syndrome and transient tachypnea of the newborn, this is not a standard practice in the United States. We aim to determine if the administration of antenatal corticosteroids for fetal lung maturation within 1 week of scheduled early term cesarean delivery resulted in decreased composite respiratory morbidity.

Study Design Historical cohort study including women who underwent scheduled early term cesarean delivery of a singleton, non-anomalous neonate at Mount Sinai Hospital between May 2015 and August 2019, comparing those who completed a course of antenatal corticosteroids within 1 week of delivery to those who did not. The primary outcome was composite respiratory morbidity defined as respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea of the newborn, and neonatal intensive care unit admission for respiratory morbidity. Maternal and neonatal characteristics were compared between groups using t-tests or Wilcoxon-Rank Sum tests for continuous measures and Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests for categorical measures, as appropriate. The outcomes were assessed using logistic regression.

Results History of preterm birth was significantly higher in those who received antenatal corticosteroids compared with those who did not (24.0 vs. 10.9%, p = 0.01). Neonates who were not exposed to antenatal corticosteroids were more likely to experience the composite respiratory morbidity compared with those who were exposed (RR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2–13.7; p = 0.02). Between 37 and 38 weeks, neonates who did not receive steroids were at increased risk of composite respiratory morbidity (RR 11.7, 95% CI 1.5–89.0, p < 0.01), however, there was no difference for those born between 38 and 39 weeks.

Conclusion Betamethasone course administered prior to planned early term cesarean delivery was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the neonatal composite respiratory morbidity compared with routine management.

Key Points

  • Steroids administered prior to scheduled cesarean lead to decreased neonatal respiratory morbidity.

  • Steroid administration was not associated with increased adverse neonatal outcomes.

  • Steroid administration was most beneficial between 37 and 38 weeks.

Note

The study was presented at the 40th annual pregnancy meeting of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Grapevine, TX, February 3 to 8, 2020.




Publication History

Received: 18 March 2021

Accepted: 05 October 2021

Publication Date:
20 October 2021 (online)

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