Am J Perinatol
DOI: 10.1055/a-1678-0002
Original Article

Neonatal Therapy Staffing in the United States and Relationships to NICU Type and Location, Level of Acuity, and Population Factors

Neonatal Rehabilitation Therapy Staffing
1  Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States
Julia Lisle
Louisa Ferrara
2  Molloy College, Rockville Centre, United States (Ringgold ID: RIN6957)
Kathryn Knudsen
Ramya Kumar
3  Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, United States (Ringgold ID: RIN2814)
› Author Affiliations

Objectives. To 1) estimate the total pool of neonatal therapists and the average number represented in each US-based NICU, and 2) investigate the relationships between the number and type of neonatal therapy team members to NICU/hospital, population, and therapy factors. Study Design. This study used several methods of data collection (surveys, phone calls, website searches) that were combined to establish a comprehensive list of factors across each NICU in the US. Results. We estimate 2333 neonatal therapy FTEs, with 4232 neonatal therapists covering those FTEs in the US. Among 564 NICUs, 432 (76%) had a dedicated therapy team, 103 (18%) had PRN therapy coverage only, and 35 (6%) had no neonatal therapy team. Having a dedicated therapy team was more likely in level IV (n=112; 97%) and III (n=269; 83%) NICUs compared to level II NICUs (n=51; 42%) (p<0.001). Having a dedicated therapy team was related to having more NICU beds (p<0.001), being part of a free-standing children’s hospital or children’s hospital within a hospital (p<0.001), and being part of an academic medical center or community hospital (p<0.001). Having a dedicated therapy team was more common in the Southeast, Midwest, Southwest, and West (p=0.001), but was not related to the proportion of the community living in poverty or belonging to racial/ethnic minorities (p>0.05). There was an average of 17 beds per neonatal therapy FTE, a good marker of therapy coverage based on NICU size. Three-hundred US-based NICUs (22%) had at least one Certified Neonatal Therapist (CNT) in early 2020, with CNT presence being more likely in higher acuity NICUs (59% of Level IV NICUs had at least one CNT). Conclusions. Understanding the composition of neonatal therapy teams at different hospitals across the US can drive change to expand neonatal therapy aimed at optimizing outcomes of high-risk families.

Publication History

Received: 04 June 2021

Accepted after revision: 20 October 2021

Publication Date:
25 October 2021 (online)

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