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Standard-Dose Azithromycin in Class III Obese Patients Undergoing Unscheduled Cesarean Delivery
Objective Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis reduces cesarean wound complications. This study investigates whether integration of standard-dose (500 mg) azithromycin prophylaxis reduced wound complications in patients with class III obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 40 kg/m2) undergoing unscheduled cesarean delivery.
Study Design Retrospective cohort study of patients with class III obesity undergoing unscheduled cesarean delivery in single hospital system from January 1, 2017, to January 1, 2020. A standard dose (500 mg) of azithromycin was integrated into system order sets in 2018. Medical history and postoperative wound outcomes were compared in pre- and postintegration cohorts. Wound complication was defined as composite of wound seroma, hematoma, superficial or deep infection.
Results A total of 1,273 patients met inclusion criteria, 303 patients in the preorder set group, and 970 patients in the postorder set group. Demographics were similar between the pre- and postintegration cohorts, including BMI (median: 44.4 kg/m2, p = 0.84) and weight at delivery (mean: 121.2 ± 17.8 kg, p = 0.57). Patients in the postintegration cohort had lower rates of composite postpartum wound complication (7.9 vs. 13.9%, p = 0.002), superficial infection or deep infection/abscess (6.7 vs. 10.2%, p = 0.042), and postpartum readmission or unscheduled visits (18.7 vs. 24.4%, p < 0.029). Rates of chorioamnionitis and endometritis were similar between the pre- and postintegration groups (8.6 vs. 6.9%, p = 0.33, and 1.7 vs. 1.9%, p = 0.81, respectively). Patients in the postintegration cohort had lower risk of postoperative composite wound complication (unadjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.54, confidence interval [CI]: 0.36–0.80, p = 0.002) and lower rates of wound infection (unadjusted OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40–0.99, p = 0.044). When comparing patients who received azithromycin at delivery and patients who did not, standard-dose azithromycin reduced risk of postoperative wound complication (unadjusted OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46–0.99, p = 0.043).
Conclusion A standard dose of azithromycin provides adequate perioperative prophylaxis in class III obese patients, decreasing rates of postcesarean wound complications and unscheduled postpartum outpatient visits.
Class III obese patients undergoing unscheduled cesarean have high rates of wound complications.
Standard-dose azithromycin reduces risk of postcesarean wound infection in class III obese patients.
Standard-dose azithromycin reduces readmission, unscheduled visits in class III obese patients.
Received: 24 April 2023
Accepted: 21 July 2023
Accepted Manuscript online:
24 July 2023
Article published online:
25 August 2023
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