Am J Perinatol
DOI: 10.1055/a-2223-3602
Original Article

Risk of Severe Maternal Morbidity Associated with Maternal Comorbidity Burden and Social Vulnerability

1   Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, North Shore University Hospital - Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Manhasset, New York
2   Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
,
Alejandro Alvarez
3   Biostatistics Unit, Office of Academic Affairs, Northwell Health, New Hyde Park, New York
,
Fernando Suarez
1   Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, North Shore University Hospital - Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Manhasset, New York
,
Insaf Kouba
4   Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, South Shore University Hospital - Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Bay Shore, New York
,
Burton Rochelson
1   Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, North Shore University Hospital - Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Manhasset, New York
,
Adriann Combs
1   Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, North Shore University Hospital - Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Manhasset, New York
,
Michael Nimaroff
1   Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, North Shore University Hospital - Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Manhasset, New York
,
4   Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, South Shore University Hospital - Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Bay Shore, New York
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Objective We evaluated the associations of the obstetric comorbidity index (OB-CMI) and social vulnerability index (SVI) with severe maternal morbidity (SMM).

Study Design Multicenter retrospective cohort study of all patients who delivered (gestational age > 20 weeks) within a university health system from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2021. OB-CMI scores were assigned to patients using clinical documentation and diagnosis codes. SVI scores, released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), were assigned to patients based on census tracts. The primary outcome was SMM, based on the 21 CDC indicators. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to model the odds of SMM as a function of OB-CMI and SVI while adjusting for maternal race and ethnicity, insurance type, preferred language, and parity.

Results In total, 73,518 deliveries were analyzed. The prevalence of SMM was 4% (n = 2,923). An association between OB-CMI and SMM was observed (p < 0.001), where OB-CMI score categories of 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 were associated with higher odds of SMM compared with an OB-CMI score category of 0. In the adjusted model, there was evidence of an interaction between OB-CMI and maternal race and ethnicity (p = 0.01). After adjusting for potential confounders, including SVI, non-Hispanic Black patients had the highest odds of SMM among patients with an OB-CMI score category of 1 and ≥4 compared with non-Hispanic White patients with an OB-CMI score of 0 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.08–3.66 and aOR 10.07, 95% CI 8.42–12.03, respectively). The association between SVI and SMM was not significant on adjusted analysis.

Conclusion OB-CMI was significantly associated with SMM, with higher score categories associated with higher odds of SMM. A significant interaction between OB-CMI and maternal race and ethnicity was identified, revealing racial disparities in the odds of SMM within each higher OB-CMI score category. SVI was not associated with SMM after adjusting for confounders.

Key Points

  • OB-CMI was significantly associated with SMM.

  • Racial disparities were seen within each OB-CMI score group.

  • SVI was not associated with SMM on adjusted analysis.

Supplementary Material



Publication History

Received: 06 September 2023

Accepted: 04 December 2023

Accepted Manuscript online:
06 December 2023

Article published online:
22 January 2024

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