Am J Perinatol
DOI: 10.1055/a-2265-9177
Original Article

Artificial Intelligence to Determine Fetal Sex

1   Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio
Anant Jain
2   Centaur Labs, Boston, Massachusetts
Mike Jin
2   Centaur Labs, Boston, Massachusetts
Erik P. Duhaime
2   Centaur Labs, Boston, Massachusetts
Amol Malshe
1   Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio
Steve Corey
3   BabyFlix, San Diego, California
Robert Allen
3   BabyFlix, San Diego, California
Nicole M. Duggan
4   Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
Chanel E. Fischetti
4   Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
5   Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
› Author Affiliations


Objective This proof-of-concept study assessed how confidently an artificial intelligence (AI) model can determine the sex of a fetus from an ultrasound image.

Study Design Analysis was performed using 19,212 ultrasound image slices from a high-volume fetal sex determination practice. This dataset was split into a training set (11,769) and test set (7,443). A computer vision model was trained using a transfer learning approach with EfficientNetB4 architecture as base. The performance of the computer vision model was evaluated on the hold out test set. Accuracy, Cohen's Kappa and Multiclass Receiver Operating Characteristic area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the performance of the model.

Results The AI model achieved an Accuracy of 88.27% on the holdout test set and a Cohen's Kappa score 0.843. The ROC AUC score for Male was calculated to be 0.896, for Female a score of 0.897, for Unable to Assess a score of 0.916, and for Text Added a score of 0.981 was achieved.

Conclusion This novel AI model proved to have a high rate of fetal sex capture that could be of significant use in areas where ultrasound expertise is not readily available.

Key Points

  • This is the first proof-of-concept AI model to determine fetal sex.

  • This study adds to the growing research in ultrasound AI.

  • Our findings demonstrate AI integration into obstetric care.


This research was presented at Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine Annual Conference in February 2023.

Publication History

Received: 06 November 2023

Accepted: 06 February 2024

Accepted Manuscript online:
09 February 2024

Article published online:
01 March 2024

© 2024. Thieme. All rights reserved.

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