Ultraschall Med 2015; 36(06): 566-580
DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1566760
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part II – Diagnostic Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures (Short Version)

EFSUMB Leitlinien interventioneller Ultraschall (INVUS), Teil II – Diagnostische Ultraschall-gestützte Interventionen (Kurzversion)
P. S. Sidhu
1   Department of Radiology, King's College Hospital, London, UK
K. Brabrand
2   Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway
V. Cantisani
3   Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Policlinico Umberto I, University Sapienza, Rome, Italy
J. M. Correas
4   Department of Adult Radiology, Paris-Descartes University and Necker University Hospital, Paris, and Institut Langevin – Inserm U979, Paris, France
X. W. Cui
5   Department of Internal Medicine 2, Caritas Krankenhaus, Bad Mergentheim, Germany
6   Sino-German Research Center of Ultrasound in Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
M. D’Onofrio
7   Department of Radiology, GB Rossi University Hospital, University of Verona, Italy
M. Essig
8   Clinic of Gastroenterology, Departement Visceral Medicine, Inselspital, University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland
S. Freeman
9   Department of Radiology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, UK
O. H. Gilja
10   National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen and Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway
N. Gritzmann
11   Radiology, Esslinger Hauptstraße 89, 1220 Vienna, Austria
R. F. Havre
12   Department of Medicine and National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
A. Ignee
5   Department of Internal Medicine 2, Caritas Krankenhaus, Bad Mergentheim, Germany
C. Jenssen
13   Department of Internal Medicine, Krankenhaus Märkisch Oderland Strausberg/Wriezen, Germany
A. Kabaalioğlu
14   Department of Radiology, Akdeniz University Medical Faculty, Antalya, Turkey
T. Lorentzen
15   Department of Gastric Surgery, Ultrasound Section, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
M. Mohaupt
16   Department of Nephrology, Hypertension and Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Hypertension, University Hospital Berne, Switzerland
C. Nicolau
17   Radiology Department, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain
C. P. Nolsøe
15   Department of Gastric Surgery, Ultrasound Section, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
D. Nürnberg
18   Department of Gastroenterology, Brandenburg University of Medicine Theodor Fontane, Neuruppin, Germany
M. Radzina
19   Diagnostic Radiology Institute, Paula Stradins Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia
A. Saftoiu
20   Department of Gastroenterology, Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Craiova, Romania
21   Department of Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark
C. Serra
22   Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound Unit, Department of Organ Failure and Transplantation S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital Bologna, Italy
Z. Spârchez
23   Department of Gastroenterology, Institute for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, “Iuliu Hatieganu” Cluj-Napoca and Institute for Gastroenterology and Hepatology “O. Fodor” Cluj-Napoca, Romania
I. Sporea
24   Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babes, Timisoara, Romania
C. F. Dietrich
5   Department of Internal Medicine 2, Caritas Krankenhaus, Bad Mergentheim, Germany
6   Sino-German Research Center of Ultrasound in Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
15 December 2015 (online)


This is the second part of the series on interventional ultrasound guidelines of the Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB). It deals with the diagnostic interventional procedure. General points are discussed which are pertinent to all patients, followed by organ-specific imaging that will allow the correct pathway and planning for the interventional procedure. This will allow for the appropriate imaging workup for each individual interventional procedure (Long version/ short version; the long version is published online).


Der zweite Teil der Serie von Leitlinien der European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) zur interventionellen Sonografie beschreibt die Vorbereitung, Indikationen, Durchführung und Nachsorge ultraschallgestützter diagnostischer Interventionen am Abdomen. Nach Darstellung allgemeiner, für alle Patienten gültiger Voraussetzungen werden organbezogen Bildgebung, Planung und Ablauf der verschiedenen diagnostischen Interventionen dargestellt (Langversion/ Kurzversion; die Langversion ist online publiziert).

  • References

  • 1 Lorentzen T, Nolsoe CP, Ewertsen C et al. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound, Part I: General Aspects. Ultraschall in Med 2015; 36: 464-472
  • 2 Dietrich CF, Lorentzen T, Appelbaum L et al. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound, Part III: Abdominal Treatment Procedures. Ultraschall in Med 2015; in press
  • 3 Dietrich CF, Lorentzen T, Sidhu PS et al. An Introduction to the EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS). Ultraschall in Med 2015; 36: 460-463
  • 4 Hergesell O, Felten H, Andrassy K et al. Safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy-retrospective analysis of 1090 consecutive cases. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998; 13: 975-977
  • 5 Maya ID, Maddela P, Barker J et al. Percutaneous renal biopsy: comparison of blind and real-time ultrasound-guided technique. Semin Dial 2007; 20: 355-358
  • 6 Lindor KD, Bru C, Jorgensen RA et al. The role of ultrasonography and automatic-needle biopsy in outpatient percutaneous liver biopsy. Hepatology 1996; 23: 1079-1083
  • 7 Patel IJ, Davidson JC, Nikolic B et al. Consensus guidelines for periprocedural management of coagulation status and hemostasis risk in percutaneous image-guided interventions. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2012; 23: 727-736
  • 8 Sue M, Caldwell SH, Dickson RC et al. Variation between centers in technique and guidelines for liver biopsy. Liver 1996; 16: 267-270
  • 9 Knauer CM. Percutaneous biopsy of the liver as a procedure for outpatients. Gastroenterology 1978; 74: 101-102
  • 10 Grossjohann HS, Bachmann Nielsen M. Ultrasound contrast agents may help in avoiding necrotic areas at biopsy. Ultraschall in Med 2006; 27: 2-3
  • 11 Sparchez Z, Radu P, Zaharia T et al. Usefulness of contrast enhanced ultrasound guidance in percutaneous biopsies of liver tumors. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2011; 20: 191-196
  • 12 Krucker J, Xu S, Venkatesan A et al. Clinical utility of real-time fusion guidance for biopsy and ablation. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2011; 22: 515-524
  • 13 Sainani NI, Arellano RS, Shyn PB et al. The challenging image-guided abdominal mass biopsy: established and emerging techniques 'if you can see it, you can biopsy it'. Abdom Imaging 2013; 38: 672-696
  • 14 Strobel D, Bernatik TJ, Blank W et al. Incidence of bleeding in 8172 percutaneous ultrasound-guided intraabdominal diagnostic and therapeutic interventions – results of the prospective multicenter DEGUM interventional ultrasound study (PIUS study). Ultraschall in Med 2015; 36: 122-131
  • 15 Wilson ML. General principles of specimen collection and transport. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 22: 766-777
  • 16 Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH et al. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology. 2014
  • 17 Rockey DC, Caldwell SH, Goodman ZD et al. Liver biopsy. Hepatology 2009; 49: 1017-1044
  • 18 Cholongitas E, Senzolo M, Standish R et al. A systematic review of the quality of liver biopsy specimens. Am J Clin Pathol 2006; 125: 710-721
  • 19 Pasha T, Gabriel S, Therneau T et al. Cost-effectiveness of ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. Hepatology 1998; 27: 1220-1226
  • 20 Younossi ZM, Teran JC, Ganiats TG et al. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsy for parenchymal liver disease: an economic analysis. Dig Dis Sci 1998; 43: 46-50
  • 21 Riley 3rd TR. How often does ultrasound marking change the liver biopsy site?. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 3320-3322
  • 22 Sporea I, Gherhardt D, Popescu A et al. Does the size of the needle influence the number of portal tracts obtained through percutaneous liver biopsy?. Ann Hepatol 2012; 11: 691-695
  • 23 de Man RA, van Buuren HR, Hop WC. A randomised study on the efficacy and safety of an automated Tru-Cut needle for percutaneous liver biopsy. Neth J Med 2004; 62: 441-445
  • 24 Jensen DM. Individualizing HCV Treatment with Peginterferon and Ribavirin: What needs to be Done?. Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2009; 2: 5-10
  • 25 Bravo AA, Sheth SG, Chopra S. Liver biopsy. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 495-500
  • 26 Ghent CN. Percutaneous liver biopsy: reflections and refinements. Can J Gastroenterol 2006; 20: 75-79
  • 27 Giorgio A, Tarantino L, de Stefano G et al. Complications after interventional sonography of focal liver lesions: a 22-year single-center experience. J Ultrasound Med 2003; 22: 193-205
  • 28 Weiss H, Duntsch U, Weiss A. Risks of fine needle puncture--results of a survey in West Germany(German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine survey). Ultraschall in Med 1988; 9: 121-127
  • 29 Robertson EG, Baxter G. Tumour seeding following percutaneous needle biopsy: the real story!. Clin Radiol 2011; 66: 1007-1014
  • 30 Ein SH, Shandling B, Simpson JS et al. The morbidity and mortality of splenectomy in childhood. Ann Surg 1977; 185: 307-310
  • 31 Aksnes J, Abdelnoor M, Mathisen O. Risk factors associated with mortality and morbidity after elective splenectomy. Eur J Surg 1995; 161: 253-258
  • 32 Catalano O, Lobianco R, Sandomenico F et al. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen: examination technique and preliminary clinical experience. Radiol Med 2003; 106: 338-356
  • 33 Piscaglia F, Nolsoe C, Dietrich CF et al. The EFSUMB Guidelines and Recommendations on the Clinical Practice of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS): update 2011 on non-hepatic applications. Ultraschall in Med 2012; 33: 33-59
  • 34 McInnes MD, Kielar AZ, Macdonald DB. Percutaneous image-guided biopsy of the spleen: systematic review and meta-analysis of the complication rate and diagnostic accuracy. Radiology 2011; 260: 699-708
  • 35 Singh AK, Shankar S, Gervais DA et al. Image-guided percutaneous splenic interventions. Radiographics 2012; 32: 523-534
  • 36 Keogan MT, Freed KS, Paulson EK et al. Imaging-guided percutaneous biopsy of focal splenic lesions: update on safety and effectiveness. Am J Roentgenol 1999; 172: 933-937
  • 37 O'Malley ME, Wood BJ, Boland GW et al. Percutaneous imaging-guided biopsy of the spleen. Am J Roentgenol 1999; 172: 661-665
  • 38 Lopez JI, Del Cura JL, De Larrinoa AF et al. Role of ultrasound-guided core biopsy in the evaluation of spleen pathology. APMIS 2006; 114: 492-499
  • 39 Zeppa P, Vetrani A, Luciano L et al. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the spleen. A useful procedure in the diagnosis of splenomegaly. Acta Cytol 1994; 38: 299-309
  • 40 Lishner M, Lang R, Hamlet Y et al. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with diffusely enlarged spleens. Acta Cytol 1996; 40: 196-198
  • 41 Lal A, Ariga R, Gattuso P et al. Splenic fine needle aspiration and core biopsy. A review of 49 cases. Acta Cytol 2003; 47: 951-959
  • 42 Lucey BC, Boland GW, Maher MM et al. Percutaneous nonvascular splenic intervention: a 10-year review. Am J Roentgenol 2002; 179: 1591-1596
  • 43 Kang M, Kalra N, Gulati M et al. Image guided percutaneous splenic interventions. Eur J Radiol 2007; 64: 140-146
  • 44 Civardi G, Vallisa D, Berte R et al. Ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy of the spleen: high clinical efficacy and low risk in a multicenter Italian study. Am J Hematol 2001; 67: 93-99
  • 45 Lieberman S, Libson E, Maly B et al. Imaging-guided percutaneous splenic biopsy using a 20- or 22-gauge cutting-edge core biopsy needle for the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. Am J Roentgenol 2003; 181: 1025-1027
  • 46 Lindgren PG, Hagberg H, Eriksson B et al. Excision biopsy of the spleen by ultrasonic guidance. Br J Radiol 1985; 58: 853-857
  • 47 Liang P, Gao Y, Wang Y et al. US-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the spleen using 18-gauge versus 21-gauge needles. J Clin Ultrasound 2007; 35: 477-482
  • 48 Hartwig W, Schneider L, Diener MK et al. Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas. Br J Surg 2009; 96: 5-20
  • 49 Cahn M, Chang K, Nguyen P et al. Impact of endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration on the surgical management of pancreatic cancer. Am J Surg 1996; 172: 470-472
  • 50 Kahl S, Malfertheiner P. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis of patients with solid pancreatic masses. Dig Dis 2004; 22: 26-31
  • 51 Nakamura R, Machado R, Amikura K et al. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology and endoscopic biopsy in the preoperative assessment of pancreatic and peripancreatic malignancies. Int J Pancreatol 1994; 16: 17-21
  • 52 Tillou A, Schwartz MR, Jordan PH et al. Percutaneous needle biopsy of the pancreas: when should it be performed?. World J Surg 1996; 20: 283-286 ; discussion 287
  • 53 Tempero MA, Arnoletti JP, Behrman S et al. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2010; 8: 972-1017
  • 54 Buscarini E, Pezzilli R, Cannizzaro R. Italian Association of Hospital G, Endoscopists, Italian Association for the Study of the P et al. Italian consensus guidelines for the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of cystic pancreatic neoplasms. Dig Liver Dis 2014; 46: 479-493
  • 55 Tanaka M, Fernandez-del Castillo C, Adsay V et al. International consensus guidelines 2012 for the management of IPMN and MCN of the pancreas. Pancreatology 2012; 12: 183-197
  • 56 van der Waaij LA, van Dullemen HM, Porte RJ. Cyst fluid analysis in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions: a pooled analysis. Gastrointest Endosc 2005; 62: 383-389
  • 57 D'Onofrio M, Gallotti A, Pozzi Mucelli R. Imaging techniques in pancreatic tumors. Expert Rev Med Devices 2010; 7: 257-273
  • 58 Park MK, Jo J, Kwon H et al. Usefulness of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant solid pancreatic lesions. Ultrasonography 2014; 33: 26-33
  • 59 Low G, Panu A, Millo N et al. Multimodality imaging of neoplastic and nonneoplastic solid lesions of the pancreas. Radiographics 2011; 31: 993-1015
  • 60 D'Onofrio M, Crosara S, Signorini M et al. Comparison between CT and CEUS in the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Ultraschall in Med 2013; 34: 377-381
  • 61 Yang RY, Ng D, Jaskolka JD et al. Evaluation of percutaneous ultrasound-guided biopsies of solid mass lesions of the pancreas: a center's 10-year experience. Clin Imaging 2015; 39: 62-65
  • 62 Zamboni GA, D'Onofrio M, Idili A et al. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration of 545 focal pancreatic lesions. Am J Roentgenol 2009; 193: 1691-1695
  • 63 Garre Sanchez MC, Rendon Unceta P, Lopez Cano A et al. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of the pancreas: a multicenter study. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2007; 99: 520-524
  • 64 Emerson RE, Randolph ML, Cramer HM. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas is highly predictive of pancreatic neoplasia. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 457-462
  • 65 Pais SA, Attasaranya S, Leblanc JK et al. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: correlation with surgical histopathology. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 5: 489-495
  • 66 Attasaranya S, Pais S, LeBlanc J et al. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and cyst fluid analysis for pancreatic cysts. JOP 2007; 8: 553-563
  • 67 Stelow EB, Shami VM, Abbott TE et al. The use of fine needle aspiration cytology for the distinction of pancreatic mucinous neoplasia. Am J Clin Pathol 2008; 129: 67-74
  • 68 Belsley NA, Pitman MB, Lauwers GY et al. Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas: limitations and pitfalls of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Cancer 2008; 114: 102-110
  • 69 Otto R. Interventional ultrasound. Eur Radiol 2002; 12: 283-287
  • 70 Bret PM, Nicolet V, Labadie M. Percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas. Diagn Cytopathol 1986; 2: 221-227
  • 71 Hall-Craggs MA, Lees WR. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: pancreatic and biliary tumors. Am J Roentgenol 1986; 147: 399-403
  • 72 Brandt KR, Charboneau JW, Stephens DH et al. CT- and US-guided biopsy of the pancreas. Radiology 1993; 187: 99-104
  • 73 Di Stasi M, Lencioni R, Solmi L et al. Ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy of pancreatic masses: results of a multicenter study. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93: 1329-1333
  • 74 Mallery JS, Centeno BA, Hahn PF et al. Pancreatic tissue sampling guided by EUS, CT/US, and surgery: a comparison of sensitivity and specificity. Gastrointest Endosc 2002; 56: 218-224
  • 75 Bosman FT. World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer.. WHO Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System. 4th ed. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010
  • 76 Sperti C, Pasquali C, Di Prima F et al. Percutaneous CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic lesions. Ital J Gastroenterol 1994; 26: 126-131
  • 77 Zech CJ, Helmberger T, Wichmann MW et al. Large core biopsy of the pancreas under CT fluoroscopy control: results and complications. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2002; 26: 743-749
  • 78 Smith EH. Complications of percutaneous abdominal fine-needle biopsy. Review. Radiology 1991; 178: 253-258
  • 79 Dietrich CF. Endoscopic ultrasound. 2013;
  • 80 Rodriguez JR, Razo AO, Targarona J et al. Debridement and closed packing for sterile or infected necrotizing pancreatitis: insights into indications and outcomes in 167 patients. Ann Surg 2008; 247: 294-299
  • 81 Rau B, Pralle U, Mayer JM et al. Role of ultrasonographically guided fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of infected pancreatic necrosis. Br J Surg 1998; 85: 179-184
  • 82 Nicholson ML, Wheatley TJ, Doughman TM et al. A prospective randomized trial of three different sizes of core-cutting needle for renal transplant biopsy. Kidney Int 2000; 58: 390-395
  • 83 Dietrich CF, Nuernberg D. Interventional Ultrasound: A Practical Guide and Atlas. Stuttgart, New York, Delhi, Rio: Thieme publisher; 2014
  • 84 Doyle AJ, Gregory MC, Terreros DA. Percutaneous native renal biopsy: comparison of a 1.2-mm spring-driven system with a traditional 2-mm hand-driven system. Am J Kidney Dis 1994; 23: 498-503
  • 85 Ham WS, Lee JH, Kim WT et al. Comparison of multiple session 99% ethanol and single session OK-432 sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts. J Urol 2008; 180: 2552-2556
  • 86 Chunduri S, Whittier WL, Korbet SM. Adequacy and Complication Rates with 14- vs. 16-gauge Automated Needles in Percutaneous Renal Biopsy of Native Kidneys. Semin Dial 2014;
  • 87 Irshad A, Ackerman SJ, Campbell AS et al. An overview of renal transplantation: current practice and use of ultrasound. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2009; 30: 298-314
  • 88 Burstein DM, Korbet SM, Schwartz MM. The use of the automatic core biopsy system in percutaneous renal biopsies: a comparative study. Am J Kidney Dis 1993; 22: 545-552
  • 89 Rohl L, Rasmussen OS. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous suprapubic cystostomy. European Journal of Ultrasound 1997; 6: 57-61
  • 90 Marwah DS, Korbet SM. Timing of complications in percutaneous renal biopsy: what is the optimal period of observation?. Am J Kidney Dis 1996; 28: 47-52
  • 91 Waldo B, Korbet SM, Freimanis MG et al. The value of post-biopsy ultrasound in predicting complications after percutaneous renal biopsy of native kidneys. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009; 24: 2433-2439
  • 92 Whittier WL, Korbet SM. Timing of complications in percutaneous renal biopsy. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 142-147
  • 93 Prasad N, Kumar S, Manjunath R et al. Real-time ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy with needle guide by nephrologists decreases post-biopsy complications. Clin Kidney J 2015; 8: 151-156
  • 94 Peters B, Andersson Y, Stegmayr B et al. A study of clinical complications and risk factors in 1001 native and transplant kidney biopsies in Sweden. Acta Radiol 2014; 55: 890-896
  • 95 Manno C, Strippoli GF, Arnesano L et al. Predictors of bleeding complications in percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy. Kidney Int 2004; 66: 1570-1577
  • 96 Remzi M, Marberger M. Renal tumor biopsies for evaluation of small renal tumors: why, in whom, and how?. Eur Urol 2009; 55: 359-367
  • 97 Shannon BA, Cohen RJ, de Bruto H et al. The value of preoperative needle core biopsy for diagnosing benign lesions among small, incidentally detected renal masses. J Urol 2008; 180: 1257-1261
  • 98 Wang R, Wolf Jr JS, Wood Jr DP et al. Accuracy of percutaneous core biopsy in management of small renal masses. Urology 2009; 73: 586-590
  • 99 Korivi BR, Elsayes KM. Cross-sectional imaging work-up of adrenal masses. World J Radiol 2013; 5: 88-97
  • 100 Mai J, Yong J, Dixson H et al. Is bigger better? A retrospective analysis of native renal biopsies with 16 Gauge versus 18 Gauge automatic needles. Nephrology (Carlton) 2013; 18: 525-530
  • 101 Dietrich CF, Wehrmann T, Hoffmann C et al. Detection of the adrenal glands by endoscopic or transabdominal ultrasound. Endoscopy 1997; 29: 859-864
  • 102 Liao JT, Huang TH, Wu BY. Ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal masses. Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2001; 26: 453-454
  • 103 Lumachi F, Borsato S, Brandes AA et al. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of adrenal masses in noncancer patients: clinicoradiologic and histologic correlations in functioning and nonfunctioning tumors. Cancer 2001; 93: 323-329
  • 104 Suzuki Y, Sasagawa I, Suzuki H et al. The role of ultrasonography in the detection of adrenal masses: comparison with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Int Urol Nephrol 2001; 32: 303-306
  • 105 Trojan J, Schwarz W, Sarrazin C et al. Role of ultrasonography in the detection of small adrenal masses. Ultraschall in Med 2002; 23: 96-100
  • 106 Yeh HC. US and CT evaluation of diffusely enlarged adrenal gland. Crit Rev Diagn Imaging 1992; 33: 437-460
  • 107 Dietrich CF, Ignee A, Barreiros AP et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for imaging of adrenal masses. Ultraschall in Med 2010; 31: 163-168
  • 108 Friedrich-Rust M, Schneider G, Bohle RM et al. Contrast-enhanced sonography of adrenal masses: differentiation of adenomas and nonadenomatous lesions. Am J Roentgenol 2008; 191: 1852-1860
  • 109 Arnold DT, Reed JB, Burt K. Evaluation and management of the incidental adrenal mass. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2003; 16: 7-12
  • 110 Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH et al. The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer 2007; 14: 587-599
  • 111 Vanderveen KA, Thompson SM, Callstrom MR et al. Biopsy of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: potential for disaster. Surgery 2009; 146: 1158-1166
  • 112 Young Jr WF. Clinical practice. The incidentally discovered adrenal mass. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 601-610
  • 113 Khati NJ, Gorodenker J, Hill MC. Ultrasound-guided biopsies of the abdomen. Ultrasound Q 2011; 27: 255-268
  • 114 Sharma KV, Venkatesan AM, Swerdlow D et al. Image-guided adrenal and renal biopsy. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol 2010; 13: 100-109
  • 115 Desai S, Nemcek AA. Percutaneous Biopsy. In: Desai S, Nemcek AA, eds Image-Guided Interventions. Volume 2.1. Philadelphia: PA: Saunders; 2008: 1339-1344
  • 116 Silverman SG, Mueller PR, Pinkney LP et al. Predictive value of image-guided adrenal biopsy: analysis of results of 101 biopsies. Radiology 1993; 187: 715-718
  • 117 Welch TJ, Sheedy 2nd PF, Stephens DH et al. Percutaneous adrenal biopsy: review of a 10-year experience. Radiology 1994; 193: 341-344
  • 118 Gupta S, Madoff DC. Image-guided percutaneous needle biopsy in cancer diagnosis and staging. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol 2007; 10: 88-101
  • 119 Winter TC, Lee Jr FT, Hinshaw JL. Ultrasound-guided biopsies in the abdomen and pelvis. Ultrasound Q 2008; 24: 45-68
  • 120 Katz RL. Kidney, adrenal, reteroperitoneum. In: Bibbo M, ed. Comprehensive cytopathology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1991: 771-806
  • 121 Katz RL, Patel S, Mackay B et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the adrenal gland. Acta Cytol 1984; 28: 269-282
  • 122 Rana C, Krishnani N, Kumari N. Spectrum of adrenal lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2012; 55: 461-466
  • 123 Mody MK, Kazerooni EA, Korobkin M. Percutaneous CT-guided biopsy of adrenal masses: immediate and delayed complications. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1995; 19: 434-439
  • 124 Perez-Johnston R, Hahn PF, Shenoy-Bhangle AS et al. Percutaneous biopsy of focal lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Abdom Imaging 2013; 38: 1197-1202
  • 125 Farmer KD, Harries SR, Fox BM et al. Core biopsy of the bowel wall: efficacy and safety in the clinical setting. Am J Roentgenol 2000; 175: 1627-1630
  • 126 Marco-Domenech SF, Gil-Sanchez S, Fernandez-Garcia P et al. Sonographically guided percutaneous biopsy of gastrointestinal tract lesions. Am J Roentgenol 2001; 176: 147-151
  • 127 Tudor GR, Rodgers PM, West KP. Bowel lesions: percutaneous US-guided 18-gauge needle biopsy--preliminary experience. Radiology 1999; 212: 594-597
  • 128 Tombesi P, Postorivo S, Catellani M et al. Percutaneous ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy of gastrointestinal lesions: what's its actual role in clinical practice? A retrospective study for safety and effectiveness. Ultraschall in Med 2011; 32: S62-S67
  • 129 Chen VK, Eloubeidi MA. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of intramural and extraintestinal mass lesions: diagnostic accuracy, complication assessment, and impact on management. Endoscopy 2005; 37: 984-989
  • 130 Pasha SF, Leighton JA. Endoscopic techniques for small bowel imaging. Radiol Clin North Am 2013; 51: 177-187
  • 131 de Sio I, Funaro A, Vitale LM et al. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy for diagnosis of gastrointestinal lesions. Dig Liver Dis 2013; 45: 816-819
  • 132 Sparchez Z, Radu P, Zaharia T et al. Contrast enhanced ultrasound guidance: a new tool to improve accuracy in percutaneous biopsies. Med Ultrason 2010; 12: 133-138
  • 133 Patel CM, Sahdev A, Reznek RH. CT, MRI and PET imaging in peritoneal malignancy. Cancer Imaging 2011; 11: 123-139
  • 134 Spencer JA, Swift SE, Wilkinson N et al. Peritoneal carcinomatosis: image-guided peritoneal core biopsy for tumor type and patient care. Radiology 2001; 221: 173-177
  • 135 Layfield LJ, Gopez EV. Percutaneous image-guided fine-needle aspiration of peritoneal lesions. Diagn Cytopathol 2003; 28: 6-12
  • 136 Souza FF, Mortele KJ, Cibas ES et al. Predictive value of percutaneous imaging-guided biopsy of peritoneal and omental masses: results in 111 patients. Am J Roentgenol 2009; 192: 131-136
  • 137 Stewart CJ, Coldewey J, Stewart IS. Comparison of fine needle aspiration cytology and needle core biopsy in the diagnosis of radiologically detected abdominal lesions. J Clin Pathol 2002; 55: 93-97
  • 138 Lucey BC, Stuhlfaut JW, Soto JA. Mesenteric lymph nodes seen at imaging: causes and significance. Radiographics 2005; 25: 351-365
  • 139 Nahar Saikia U, Khirdwadkar N, Saikia B et al. Image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of deep-seated enlarged lymph nodes. Acta Radiol 2002; 43: 230-234
  • 140 Memel DS, Dodd 3rd GD, Esola CC. Efficacy of sonography as a guidance technique for biopsy of abdominal, pelvic, and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Am J Roentgenol 1996; 167: 957-962
  • 141 Hesselmann V, Zahringer M, Krug B et al. Computed-tomography-guided percutaneous core needle biopsies of suspected malignant lymphomas: impact of biopsy, lesion, and patient parameters on diagnostic yield. Acta Radiol 2004; 45: 641-645
  • 142 Agid R, Sklair-Levy M, Bloom AI et al. CT-guided biopsy with cutting-edge needle for the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma: experience of 267 biopsies. Clin Radiol 2003; 58: 143-147
  • 143 Li L, Wu QL, Liu LZ et al. Value of CT-guided core-needle biopsy in diagnosis and classification of malignant lymphomas using automated biopsy gun. World J Gastroenterol 2005; 11: 4843-4847
  • 144 Balestreri L, Morassut S, Bernardi D et al. Efficacy of CT-guided percutaneous needle biopsy in the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma at first presentation. Clin Imaging 2005; 29: 123-127
  • 145 Gupta S, Rajak CL, Sood BP et al. Sonographically guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of abdominal lymph nodes: experience in 102 patients. J Ultrasound Med 1999; 18: 135-139
  • 146 Ravinsky E, Morales C. Diagnosis of lymphoma by image-guided needle biopsies: fine needle aspiration biopsy, core biopsy or both?. Acta Cytol 2005; 49: 51-57
  • 147 de Kerviler E, Guermazi A, Zagdanski AM et al. Image-guided core-needle biopsy in patients with suspected or recurrent lymphomas. Cancer 2000; 89: 647-652
  • 148 Pappa VI, Hussain HK, Reznek RH et al. Role of image-guided core-needle biopsy in the management of patients with lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 1996; 14: 2427-2430
  • 149 Zinzani PL, Colecchia A, Festi D et al. Ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy is effective in the initial diagnosis of lymphoma patients. Haematologica 1998; 83: 989-992
  • 150 Zikan M, Fischerova D, Pinkavova I et al. Ultrasound-guided tru-cut biopsy of abdominal and pelvic tumors in gynecology. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010; 36: 767-772
  • 151 Strauss DC, Hayes AJ, Thomas JM. Retroperitoneal tumours: review of management. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2011; 93: 275-280
  • 152 Anand D, Barroeta JE, Gupta PK et al. Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration of non-pancreatic lesions: an institutional experience. J Clin Pathol 2007; 60: 1254-1262
  • 153 Wang YH, Ding XW, Chen DJ. Clinical analysis for the application of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of patients with a retroperitoneal space-occupying lesion. Saudi Med J 2012; 33: 44-49
  • 154 Stattaus J, Kalkmann J, Kuehl H et al. Diagnostic yield of computed tomography-guided coaxial core biopsy of undetermined masses in the free retroperitoneal space: single-center experience. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2008; 31: 919-925
  • 155 Gangopadhyay M, Bhattacharyya NK, Ray S et al. Guided fine needle aspiration cytology of retroperitoneal masses – Our experience. J Cytol 2011; 28: 20-24
  • 156 Chakrabarti I, Bhowmik S, Sinha MG et al. Ultrasound-guided aspiration cytology of retroperitoneal masses with histopathological corroboration: A study of 71 cases. J Cytol 2014; 31: 15-19
  • 157 Tomozawa Y, Inaba Y, Yamaura H et al. Clinical value of CT-guided needle biopsy for retroperitoneal lesions. Korean J Radiol 2011; 12: 351-357
  • 158 Elsayes KM, Menias CO, Willatt J et al. Imaging of renal transplant: utility and spectrum of diagnostic findings. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2011; 40: 127-139
  • 159 Yates A, Parry C, Stephens M et al. Imaging pancreas transplants. Br J Radiol 2013; 86: 20130428
  • 160 Caiado AH, Blasbalg R, Marcelino AS et al. Complications of liver transplantation: multimodality imaging approach. Radiographics 2007; 27: 1401-1417
  • 161 Singh AK, Nachiappan AC, Verma HA et al. Postoperative imaging in liver transplantation: what radiologists should know. Radiographics 2010; 30: 339-351
  • 162 Sebastia C, Quiroga S, Boye R et al. Helical CT in renal transplantation: normal findings and early and late complications. Radiographics 2001; 21: 1103-1117
  • 163 Quiroga S, Sebastia MC, Margarit C et al. Complications of orthotopic liver transplantation: spectrum of findings with helical CT. Radiographics 2001; 21: 1085-1102
  • 164 Berenguer M, Rayon JM, Prieto M et al. Are posttransplantation protocol liver biopsies useful in the long term?. Liver Transpl 2001; 7: 790-796
  • 165 Wilkinson A. Protocol transplant biopsies: are they really needed?. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1: 130-137
  • 166 Seron D, Moreso F. Protocol biopsies in renal transplantation: prognostic value of structural monitoring. Kidney Int 2007; 72: 690-697
  • 167 Nankivell BJ, Fenton-Lee CA, Kuypers DR et al. Effect of histological damage on long-term kidney transplant outcome. Transplantation 2001; 71: 515-523
  • 168 Garcia-Rubio JH, Garcia JR, Hernandez PC et al. Correlation between dual kidney biopsy in expanded-criteria donors and transplant survival. Transplant Proc 2013; 45: 3606-3608
  • 169 Schwarz A, Mengel M, Gwinner W et al. Protocol biopsy program after renal transplantation: structure and first results. Transplant Proc 2002; 34: 2238-2239
  • 170 Sandrasegaran K, Lall C, Ramaswamy R et al. Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation. Abdom Imaging 2011; 36: 382-389
  • 171 Ruiz P. Updates on acute and chronic rejection in small bowel and multivisceral allografts. Curr Opin Organ Transplant 2014; 19: 293-302
  • 172 Godfrey EM, Upponi SS, See TC et al. A radiologist's guide to small bowel and multivisceral transplantation. Clin Radiol 2013; 68: 983-991
  • 173 Al Knawy B, Shiffman M. Percutaneous liver biopsy in clinical practice. Liver Int 2007; 27: 1166-1173
  • 174 Strassburg CP, Manns MP. Approaches to liver biopsy techniques--revisited. Semin Liver Dis 2006; 26: 318-327
  • 175 Patel MD, Phillips CJ, Young SW et al. US-guided renal transplant biopsy: efficacy of a cortical tangential approach. Radiology 2010; 256: 290-296
  • 176 Brabrand K, Midtvedt K, Gunther A et al. Color Doppler ultrasound-guided transducer compression of post biopsy bleeding of kidney transplants. J Clin Ultrasound 2013; 41: 26-31
  • 177 Carrafiello G, D'Ambrosio A, Mangini M et al. Percutaneous cholecystostomy as the sole treatment in critically ill and elderly patients. Radiol Med 2012; 117: 772-779
  • 178 Olsha O, Hijazi J, Goldin I et al. Vascular access in hemodialysis patients older than 80 years. J Vasc Surg 2015; 61: 177-183
  • 179 Welch BT, Welch TJ, Maus TP. Percutaneous image-guided biopsy in an elderly population. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010; 21: 96-100
  • 180 Gibney RG, Fache JS, Becker CD et al. Combined surgical and radiologic intervention for complicated cholelithiasis in high-risk patients. Radiology 1987; 165: 715-719