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Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Neonates with Congenital Renal and Urological Anomalies and Pulmonary Hypoplasia: A Case Report and Review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry
05 October 2016
10 December 2016
06 February 2017 (online)
Objective Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract constitute up to 30% of anomalies identified in the neonatal period. In utero oligohydramnios is often associated with pulmonary hypoplasia and respiratory failure in the neonate who may not be responsive to mechanical ventilation. Placement of these neonates on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) remains controversial and is considered in most centers to be a relative contraindication. The objective of this study is to use the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) database to describe the outcomes and complications of patients with congenital renal and urogenital anomalies with pulmonary hypoplasia who underwent ECMO in the neonatal period.
Data Sources Data from the ELSO registry were retrospectively reviewed for all patients with congenital renal and urogenital anomalies with pulmonary hypoplasia treated with ECMO support between 1990 and November 2014 using ICD-9 diagnosis codes.
Data Synthesis We identified 45 patients. The average age of the patient at the time of ECMO was 1.7 days (range: 0–14 days) and weight was 3.1 kg (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.5–3.3). Patients spent an average of 162 hours on ECMO (IQR: 81–207). The majority of patients were managed with venoarterial ECMO (60%), and the overall survival of this cohort was 42%. Survivors had higher weights (3.4 vs. 2.8 kg; p < 0.019) and were more likely to be male (90 vs. 44%; p < 0.002). Patients with obstructive urogenital lesions had an overall survival of 71 versus 16.6% in patients with a primary intrinsic renal diagnosis (p = 0.004). Renal replacement therapy was required in 51% of the patients during their ECMO support.
Conclusion Neonates with renal or urogenital disease and pulmonary hypoplasia have an overall survival rate of 42%. Patients with a diagnosis of urogenital obstruction have much more favorable outcomes when compared with those with intrinsic renal disease such as polycystic kidney disease.
Keywordsextracorporeal membrane oxygenation - Extracorporeal Life Support Organization - pulmonary hypoplasia - congenital renal anomalies - outcomes
All the authors meet the criteria for authorship published by Frontiers in Pediatrics. N. T., D. B., K. W. , A. B., and J. C. were involved in conception of the work. J. C., K. W., and A. B. were involved in data acquisition. J. W., A. B., and J. C. were involved in data analysis. N. T., D. B., K. W., J. W., A. B., and J. C. were involved in interpretation of data. N. T., D. B., K. W., J. W., A. B., and J. C. were involved in drafting the work and critically reviewing the manuscript.
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