Amer J Perinatol 2018; 35(05): 521-526
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1608810
Original Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

The Independent Contribution of Uterine Blood Flow to Birth Weight and Body Composition in Smoking Mothers

Kylie M. Cooper
Department of Maternal Fetal Medicine, University of Vermont Medical Center, Burlington, Vermont
,
Ira M. Bernstein
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Vermont Medical Center, Burlington, Vermont
,
Joan M. Skelly
Department of Biostatistician, Medical Biostatistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont
,
Sarah H. Heil
Department of Psychiatry and Psychological Science, Vermont Center on Behavior and Health, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont
,
Stephen T. Higgins
Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont
› Author Affiliations
Funding Funding was provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, grant number DA14028.
Further Information

Publication History

06 May 2017

12 October 2017

Publication Date:
28 November 2017 (eFirst)

Abstract

Objective This study aims to evaluate the relationship of maternal smoking to uterine artery hemodynamics and examine independent contributions to birth weight and fetal body composition.

Study Design Women were enrolled in a prospective randomized controlled study targeting smoking abstinence. Uterine artery Doppler ultrasound was performed and volumetric blood flow was calculated. Third trimester ultrasound estimates of fetal body composition were performed and birth weight was recorded.

Results Uterine artery volumetric flow and resistance index (RI) were significantly correlated with birth weight adjusted for gestational age (R = 0.35, p = 0.002; R = − 0.27, p = 0.02). Volumetric flow was significantly associated with fetal fat mass (R = 0.30, p = 0.018). Smoking status did not have significant effects on lean body mass (t [61] = 0.60, p = 0.55), fat mass (t [61] = 1.67, p = 0.10), or volumetric flow (t = 0.86, df = 87, p = 0.39). Stepwise regression identified volumetric flow (β = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35–1.27, p < 0.001), maternal prepregnancy body mass index (β = 16.04, 95% CI: 2.57–29.50, p = 0.02), and fetal sex (β = 346.28, 95% CI: −532.64 to 159.91, p < 0.001, where male = 0 and female = 1) as independent contributors to birth weight adjusted for gestational age.

Conclusion No direct relationship of smoking to uterine artery hemodynamics was demonstrated. Volumetric flow was an independent contributor to birth weight and was associated with fetal fat deposition, while smoking was not independently associated with either outcome.